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Author Chamorro, E.; Bonnin-Arias, C.; Perez-Carrasco, M.J.; Munoz de Luna, J.; Vazquez, D.; Sanchez-Ramos, C.
Title Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Photochemistry and Photobiology Abbreviated Journal Photochem Photobiol
Volume 89 Issue 2 Pages (down) 468-473
Keywords Human Health; Apoptosis/*radiation effects; Biological Markers/metabolism; Caspases/metabolism; Cell Survival/radiation effects; DNA Damage; Epithelial Cells/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects; Histones/metabolism; Humans; Light; Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial/*radiation effects; Mitochondria/*radiation effects; Photoperiod; Primary Cell Culture; Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism; Retinal Pigment Epithelium/cytology/metabolism/*radiation effects
Abstract Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC.
Address Neuro-Computing and Neuro-Robotics Research Group, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, Spain. eva.chamorro@opt.ucm.es
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ISSN 0031-8655 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:22989198 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 511
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Author Blobaum, A.; Hunecke, M.
Title Perceived Danger in Urban Public Space: The Impacts of Physical Features and Personal Factors. Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Environment and Behavior Abbreviated Journal
Volume 37 Issue 4 Pages (down) 465–486
Keywords Society; Safety
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1000
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Author Bazell, R.J.
Title Star Bright, Street Light, Which Will They See Tonight? Type Magazine Article
Year 1971 Publication Science Abbreviated Journal Science
Volume 171 Issue Pages (down) 461
Keywords Society; light pollution; history; historical
Abstract Astronomers are asking that Tucson modify its outdoor lighting so that their view of the heavens will not be obstructed by the city's nighttime glare. Workers at the five observatories: in the mountains surrounding this rapidly growing city of 300,000 fear that in the future they will be unable to observe certain astronomical phenomena, if the amount of light coming from the city continues to increase.
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Publisher AAAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1257
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Author Sperber, A.N.; Elmore, A.C.; Crow, M.L.; Cawlfield, J.D.
Title Performance evaluation of energy efficient lighting associated with renewable energy applications Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Renewable Energy Abbreviated Journal Renewable Energy
Volume 44 Issue Pages (down) 423-430
Keywords Renewable energy; Energy efficiency; Ultra capacitor; Light emitting diodes; Metal halide; LED; LED lighting
Abstract Energy efficiency is a primary consideration when designing off-grid renewable energy systems including portable micro-grids. This study focuses on characterizing the potential benefits associated with using energy efficient exterior area lighting commonly associated with remote installations. Light emitting diode (LED) luminaires are becoming more commercially available, and this study compares two LED products designed for exterior lighting to traditional metal halide lamps. The characterization focuses on the use of a diesel generator, battery bank, and a bank of ultra capacitors (UCAPs) to power the lights because these systems are also used to generate or store energy at renewable energy-powered micro-grids. This field-based study quantifies the illuminance provided by each lighting system, diesel consumption rates associated with powering the lights and/or charging the batteries and UCAPs, and the time of operation for each lighting system when powered by a single discharge cycle of the batteries and UCAPs. The energy efficiency benefit of the LED luminaires is offset by their lower illuminance. However, a comparison of lighting standards for specific purposes such as security lighting indicates that LEDs may be appropriate for applications where a metal halide system would provide significantly more illumination than required at a much higher energy cost. For those purposes where higher levels of illuminance are required, the data presented in the paper may be useful in designing a renewable energy-powered micro-grid that uses multiple LED fixtures to illuminate an exterior area that is currently illuminated by a single metal halide light stand.
Address Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 129 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop Avenue Rolla, MO 65409, USA
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ISSN 0960-1481 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 335
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Author Edensor, T.
Title The Gloomy City: Rethinking the Relationship between Light and Dark Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Urban Studies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 52 Issue 3 Pages (down) 422-438
Keywords Society
Abstract Given geography’s neglect of illuminated and dark space, this paper explores the various qualities of darkness that have contributed to the experience of the city. In recent history, darkness has been conceptualised negatively, for instance, with the ‘dark side’ and the ‘forces of darkness’ conceived as the opposite of that which enlightens and illuminates. Perhaps such metaphors testify to earlier urban conditions in which perils of all sorts lurked in the nocturnal city and doors were closed when darkness fell. Yet modern illumination has transformed nocturnal urban experience, producing cityscapes of regulation, hierarchical selectiveness, consumption, fantasy and imagination. However, this article suggests that the more positive qualities of darkness have been overlooked: the potential for conviviality and intimacy to be fostered in the dark, the aesthetics and atmospherics of darkness and shadow, the possibilities for apprehending the world through other senses and the dismissal of the star-saturated sky.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 739
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