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Author Lapostolle, D, & Challéat, S.
Title Making Darkness a Place-Based Resource: How the Fight against Light Pollution Reconfigures Rural Areas in France Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Annals of the American Association of Geographers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Conservation; Society
Abstract Light pollution refers to the degradation of darkness through the use of artificial light at night in and around human infrastructures. This pollution is intrinsically related to urbanization and spills out from urban areas to affect both rural and protected areas. Several countries are organizing the fight against light pollution. There, local communities are experimenting with environmental policies designed to protect darkness. The challenge is about preserving biodiversity and fostering the energy transition. In France, a number of pioneering rural areas are experimenting with mechanisms that include this dual implication. Two of them provide the case study for this article. We show how these areas turn darkness into a specific resource. We identify three specification processes. The first obeys an anthropocentric utilitarian rationale and is part of the “economicization” of the environment in the line of shallow ecology. The second follows a rationale of ecocentric conservation and is part of the radical ecologization of the economy, in line with deep ecology. The third is in keeping with an integrated socioecosystemic rationale enshrining the interdependence between development, planning, the preservation of biodiversity, and energy savings. Local areas are plagued with specification controversies. These areas become incubation rooms; that is, spaces for resolving these controversies. These are reflected in a transition operator enabling the local area to take a fresh trajectory in terms of development and planning.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2949
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Author Pritchard, S. B., & Le Gallic, S.
Title Light(s) and Darkness(es): Looking Back, Looking Forward Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Energy History/Revue d’histoire de l’énergie Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue (up) Pages
Keywords Society; Art; History
Abstract In this special issue, we argue that light(s) and darkness(es) should be understood in their multiplicity, and that they constitute two aspects of the same phenomenon. They should, therefore, be studied in relation to each other. The complex dynamics of light and dark are more integral to the history of art than other fields, thus offering models for a relational approach to empirical studies beyond this discipline. Drawing on this work, this special issue aims to challenge reductionist frameworks that focus on light alone, without reference to darkness. It explores some of the nuances of light/darkness created by candle, kerosene, oil, gas, and electricity, teasing out the diverse, sometimes contradictory meanings and experiences of light(s) and darkness(es) in the past. It thus aims to study the juxtaposition of light and dark, placing this seeming contrast in dialogue with broader conversations in the history of energy, environmental history, the history of science and technology, as well as the history of representations.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2966
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Author Nadybal, S.M.; Collins, T.W.; Grineski, S.E.
Title Light pollution inequities in the continental United States: A distributive environmental justice analysis Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Environmental Research Abbreviated Journal Environ Res
Volume 189 Issue (up) Pages 109959
Keywords Society; Planning; Inequality; Environmental justice; Race/ethnicity; Socioeconomic status; United States
Abstract Excessive exposure to ambient light at night is a well-documented hazard to human health, yet analysts have not examined it from an environmental justice (EJ) perspective. We conducted the first EJ study of exposure to light pollution by testing for socially disparate patterns across the continental United States (US). We first calculated population-weighted mean exposures to examine whether ambient light pollution in the US differed between racial/ethnic groups. We then used multivariable generalized estimating equations (GEEs) that adjust for geographic clustering to examine whether light pollution was distributed inequitably based on racial/ethnic composition and socioeconomic status across US neighborhoods (census tracts). Finally, we conducted a stratified analysis of metropolitan core, suburban, and small city–rural tracts to determine whether patterns of inequity varied based on urban-rural context. We found evidence of disparities in exposures to light pollution based on racial/ethnic minority and low-to-mid socioeconomic statuses. Americans of Asian, Hispanic or Black race/ethnicity had population-weighted mean exposures to light pollution in their neighborhoods that were approximately two times that of White Americans. GEEs indicated that neighborhoods composed of higher proportions of Blacks, Hispanics, Asians, or renter-occupants experienced greater exposures to ambient light at night. Stratified analyses indicated that those patterns of inequity did not substantially vary based on urban-rural context. Findings have implications for understanding environmental influences on health disparities, raise concerns about the potential for a multiple environmental jeopardy situation, and highlight the need for policy actions to address light pollution.
Address Department of Geography, University of Utah, 260 Central Campus Dr., Rm. 4625, Salt Lake City, UT, 84112, USA
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Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0013-9351 ISBN Medium
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 3059
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Author Derrien, M.M.; Stokowski, P.A.
Title Discursive constructions of night sky experiences: Imagination and imaginaries in national park visitor narratives Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Annals of Tourism Research Abbreviated Journal Annals of Tourism Research
Volume 85 Issue (up) Pages 103038
Keywords Astrotourism; Society
Abstract Communities and protected areas worldwide have initiated programs to protect and promote dark night skies. Yet, limited research has explored how and why night skies become of interest or meaningful to people. Because night skies are literally beyond human reach, we focus on how visitors to a U.S. national park imagine night skies and invoke imaginaries that make night skies meaningful. Drawing from interviews, we examine how visitors use symbolic language, narrative, and other discursive practices to develop the social, cultural, and spatial contexts of their night sky experiences. Findings inform our understanding of imagination and imaginaries in tourism and recreation research, while offering new approaches to night skies research.
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ISSN 0160-7383 ISBN Medium
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Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3118
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M.
Title Balancing artificial light at night with turtle conservation? Coastal community engagement with light-glow reduction Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Environmental Conservation Abbreviated Journal Envir. Conserv.
Volume 42 Issue (up) 02 Pages 171-181
Keywords Society; behaviour; community engagement; conservation; constraints; light pollution; marine turtles
Abstract Artificial lighting is a significant threat to biodiversity. Although efforts to reduce lighting are crucial for species’ conservation efforts, management is challenging because light at night is integral to modern society and light use is increasing with population and economic growth. The development and evaluation of appropriate light management strategies will require positive public support, and a comprehensive understanding of public engagement with light pollution. This is the first study to examine public engagement with reducing light at night for the protection of a threatened species. A community campaign to reduce artificial light use was initiated in 2008 to protect marine turtles at a globally significant nesting beach. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed community engagement with light-glow reduction, using an existing theoretical constraints framework. Despite high levels of cognitive and affective engagement (knowledge and concern), behavioural engagement (action) with light reduction in this community was limited. Community perceptions of light reduction were dominated by ‘uncertainty and scepticism’ and ‘externalizing responsibility/blame’, implying that behavioural engagement in this community may be increased by addressing these widely-held perceptions using modified campaign materials and/or strategic legislation. Further refinement of the theoretical constraints framework would better guide future empirical and conceptual research to improve understanding of public engagement with critical environmental issues.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au
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Publisher Cambridge Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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ISSN 0376-8929 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1284
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