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Author Raiewski, E.E.; Elliott, J.A.; Evans, J.A.; Glickman, G.L.; Gorman, M.R.
Title Twice daily melatonin peaks in Siberian but not Syrian hamsters under 24 h light:dark:light:dark cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 29 Issue 9 Pages 1206-1215
Keywords (up) Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Male; Melatonin/blood/*secretion; Mesocricetus/blood/*physiology; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus/blood/*physiology; Photoperiod; Species Specificity
Abstract The daily pattern of blood-borne melatonin varies seasonally under the control of a multi-oscillator circadian pacemaker. Here we examine patterns of melatonin secretion and locomotor activity in Siberian and Syrian hamsters entrained to bimodal LDLD8:4:8:4 and LD20:4 lighting schedules that facilitate novel temporal arrangements of component circadian oscillators. Under LDLD, both species robustly bifurcated wheel-running activity in distinct day scotophase (DS) and night scotophase (NS) bouts. Siberian hamsters displayed significant melatonin increases during each scotophase in LDLD, and in the single daily scotophase of LD20:4. The bimodal melatonin secretion pattern persisted in acutely extended 16 h scotophases. Syrian hamsters, in contrast, showed no significant increases in plasma melatonin during either scotophase of LDLD8:4:8:4 or in LD20:4. In this species, detectable levels were observed only when the DS of LDLD was acutely extended to yield 16 h of darkness. Established species differences in the phase lag of nocturnal melatonin secretion relative to activity onset may underlie the above contrast: In non-bifurcated entrainment to 24 h LD cycles, Siberian hamsters show increased melatonin secretion within approximately 2 h after activity onset, whereas in Syrian hamsters, detectable melatonin secretion phase lags activity onset and the L/D transition by at least 4 h. The present results provide new evidence indicating multi-oscillator regulation of the waveform of melatonin secretion, specifically, the circadian control of the onset, offset and duration of nocturnal secretion.
Address Department of Psychology, and Center for Chronobiology, University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0109, USA. eraiewski@ucsd.edu
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23003567 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 85
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Author Zschokke, S.; Herberstein, M.E.
Title Laboratory Methods For Maintaining And Studying Web-Building Spiders Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Journal of Arachnology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Arachnology
Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 205-213
Keywords (up) Animals; data collection; in various scien-; laboratory manual; methodology; popular model; spider silk; spider web; system to address questions; web-building spiders
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ISSN 0161-8202 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 677
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Author Hammerschlag, N.; Meyer, C.G.; Grace, M.S.; Kessel, S.T.; Sutton, T.T.; Harvey, E.S.; Paris-Limouzy, C.B.; Kerstetter, D.W.; Cooke, S.J.
Title Shining a light on fish at night: an overview of fish and fisheries in the dark of night, and in deep and polar seas Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Bulletin of Marine Science Abbreviated Journal bms
Volume 93 Issue 2 Pages 253-284
Keywords (up) Animals; Economics; Society
Abstract In aquatic environments, what one observes during the day can differ substantially by night. The species composition and associated ecological processes that occur during the day are often different than night. In polar seas and at great depths, “night” can span, months, years, and beyond. Teleosts and elasmobranchs have evolved unique sensory and behavioral modalities for living in darkness. As a consequence, fishers have adopted unique strategies for exploiting fish at night or in dark systems. We propose that neglecting the night has led to an incomplete understanding of aquatic organismal ecology, population/community dynamics, and ecosystem function with consequences for fisheries conservation management. To address this knowledge gap and stimulate the exchange of new data and ideas on behaviors, patterns, and processes relating to fish and fisheries in darkness, Fish at Night: an international symposium was held in Miami, Florida (USA), from 18 to 20 November, 2015. Here, we synthesize the findings from the symposium, providing an overview on the state-of-knowledge of fish studies in the dark, identifying critical information gaps, and charting a course for future research. We focus our commentary and synthesis on six areas: (1) nocturnal fish behavior and ecology; (2) fishing, fisheries, and enforcement; (3) deep and polar seas; (4) diel fish distribution and abundance comparisons; (5) methods for studying fish in darkness; (6) human threats to fish at night; and (7) larval fish at night. Taken together, we attempt to “shine a light” on fish at night, generating a greater interest and understanding of fishes and fisheries during darkness.
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ISSN 0007-4977 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1837
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Author Davies, Thomas W; Bennie, Jonathan; Inger, Richard; Hempel de Ibarra, Natalie; Gaston, Kevin J
Title Artificial light pollution: are shifting spectral signatures changing the balance of species interactions? Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Global Change Biologyology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 19 Issue 5 Pages 1417-1423
Keywords (up) animals; ecosystems; species interaction; human vision
Abstract Technological developments in municipal lighting are altering the spectral characteristics of artificially lit habitats. Little is yet known of the biological consequences of such changes, although a variety of animal behaviours are dependent on detecting the spectral signature of light reflected from objects. Using previously published wavelengths of peak visual pigment absorbance, we compared how four alternative street lamp technologies affect the visual abilities of 213 species of arachnid, insect, bird, reptile and mammal by producing different wavelength ranges of light to which they are visually sensitive. The proportion of the visually detectable region of the light spectrum emitted by each lamp was compared to provide an indication of how different technologies are likely to facilitate visually guided behaviours such as detecting objects in the environment. Compared to narrow spectrum lamps, broad spectrum technologies enable animals to detect objects that reflect light over more of the spectrum to which they are sensitive and, importantly, create greater disparities in this ability between major taxonomic groups. The introduction of broad spectrum street lamps could therefore alter the balance of species interactions in the artificially lit environment.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1584
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Author Finch, D.; Smith, B.R.; Marshall, C.; Coomber, F.G.; Kubasiewicz, L.M.; Anderson, M.; Wright, P.G.R.; Mathews, F.
Title Effects of Artificial Light at Night (ALAN) on European Hedgehog Activity at Supplementary Feeding Stations Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Animals : an Open Access Journal From MDPI Abbreviated Journal Animals (Basel)
Volume 10 Issue 5 Pages in press
Keywords (up) Animals; Erinaceus europaeus; activity pattern; camera trap; citizen science; fragmentation; hedgehogs; light pollution; lightscape; urbanisation
Abstract : Artificial light at night (ALAN) can have negative consequences for a wide range of taxa. However, the effects on nocturnal mammals other than bats are poorly understood. A citizen science camera trapping experiment was therefore used to assess the effect of ALAN on the activity of European hedgehogs (Erinaceus europaeus) at supplementary feeding stations in UK gardens. A crossover design was implemented at 33 gardens with two treatments-artificial light and darkness-each of which lasted for one week. The order of treatment depended on the existing lighting regime at the feeding station: dark treatments were applied first at dark feeding stations, whereas light treatments were used first where the station was already illuminated. Although temporal changes in activity patterns in response to the treatments were noted in some individuals, the direction of the effects was not consistent. Similarly, there was no overall impact of ALAN on the presence or feeding activities of hedgehogs in gardens where supplementary feeding stations were present. These findings are somewhat reassuring insofar as they demonstrate no net negative effect on a species thought to be in decline, in scenarios where the animals are already habituated to supplementary feeding. However, further research is needed to examine long-term effects and the effects of lighting on hedgehog prey, reproductive success and predation risk.
Address Mammal Society, London E9 6EJ, UK
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2076-2615 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32354129 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2904
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