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Author Lapostolle, D, & Challéat, S.
Title Making Darkness a Place-Based Resource: How the Fight against Light Pollution Reconfigures Rural Areas in France Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Annals of the American Association of Geographers Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Conservation; Society
Abstract Light pollution refers to the degradation of darkness through the use of artificial light at night in and around human infrastructures. This pollution is intrinsically related to urbanization and spills out from urban areas to affect both rural and protected areas. Several countries are organizing the fight against light pollution. There, local communities are experimenting with environmental policies designed to protect darkness. The challenge is about preserving biodiversity and fostering the energy transition. In France, a number of pioneering rural areas are experimenting with mechanisms that include this dual implication. Two of them provide the case study for this article. We show how these areas turn darkness into a specific resource. We identify three specification processes. The first obeys an anthropocentric utilitarian rationale and is part of the “economicization” of the environment in the line of shallow ecology. The second follows a rationale of ecocentric conservation and is part of the radical ecologization of the economy, in line with deep ecology. The third is in keeping with an integrated socioecosystemic rationale enshrining the interdependence between development, planning, the preservation of biodiversity, and energy savings. Local areas are plagued with specification controversies. These areas become incubation rooms; that is, spaces for resolving these controversies. These are reflected in a transition operator enabling the local area to take a fresh trajectory in terms of development and planning.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2949
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Author Grove, L.
Title Reducing Acadia's Light Pollution Type Manuscript
Year 2016 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Conservation; Society; Economics; Acadia National Park; Maine; benefit cost analysis; astrotourism; contingent valuation method; dark sky places; dark sky park
Abstract Acadia National Park is among the most visited national parks in the United States, attracting millions of people per year. Thousands of those visitors come to the park for “astro-tourism,” as Acadia has become one of the premier stargazing locations on the east coast. There remains, however, the continued threat from light pollution from the surrounding communities that negatively affects Acadia's darkness, contributing to a lesser visitor experience and potentially harming native ecosystems. Although park management and community organizations have engaged in significant efforts to decrease Acadia's nighttime light levels and raise awareness among visitors and locals regarding the importance of darkness, the park still seek to continue to decrease light pollution. This report developed policy options that could help solve the long-term policy goal of decreasing nighttime lighting levels within and around Acadia while also using the International Dark-Sky Association's Dark-Sky Park designation requirements as a reasonable, short-term policy benchmark.

Working within existing organizations, the policy options crafted to address Acadia’s nighttime lighting levels were analyzed both qualitatively through a criteria evaluation and quantitatively through a Benefit Cost Analysis.

The options included 1) the formation of a Darkness Coalition within the League of Towns, 2) a reimagining of the Worcester Polytechnic Institute Dark-Sky Project into the Dark-Sky Taskforce, 3) the creation of a Lighting Consultant position paid through the Friends of Acadia Wild Acadia initiative, and 4) the combination of Coalition and the Taskforce into the League of Towns – Dark-Sky Partnership (LOT-DSP). The report recommends the adoption of Option 4 – the creation of the LOT – DSP. While this option does not provide the greatest estimated monetary net value compared to the Status Quo in the quantitative evaluation, it still provides an estimated benefit of about $105 million over the course of five years and is the strongest option in the qualitative analysis. The LOT – DSP provides the best opportunity for Acadia to achieve legitimate and long-lasting nighttime light level reduction.
Address Frank Batten School of Leadership and Public Policy, Garrett Hall, 235 McCormick Road, P.O. Box 400893, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4893 USA; locher.grove(at)gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis Master's thesis
Publisher University of Virginia Place of Publication Charlottesville Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1449
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Author Pritchard, S.B.
Title Epilogue. Field notes from the end of the world: Light, darkness, Energy, and endscape in polar night Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Journal of Energy History Abbreviated Journal
Volume 2 Issue Pages
Keywords (up) Darkness; Lighting; Society; Psychology
Abstract This personal essay describes light(s) and darkness(es) in Longyearbyen, Svalbard (Norway) during polar night in January 2019. Drawing on autoethnographic methods, I also seek to describe how I experienced the remarkable lightscapes and darkscapes of the far north during winter. I suggest how the history of energy in Longyearbyen has both shaped and been shaped by the “extreme” light/dark cycle of the high Arctic. In the process, I develop the concept of “endscape” to characterize vestiges of a landscape that has been, and will continue to be, transformed by global climate change, and will eventually disappear. This recent experience illustrates the potential of experiential, reflexive ways of contending with light/dark. It also draws attention to tensions in the academic study of light/dark and the history of energy, and how they play out in practice, in the context of a conference held in a remote location that requires scholars to contribute to the continued extraction of fossil fuels –something that most would otherwise decry. I suggest that Longyearbyen is a useful case study for other endscapes in the early 21st C.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2722
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Author Challéat, S.; Lapostolle, D.; Milian, J.
Title The Night-time Environment in French Mountain Areas. A Resource and a Transition Operator Towards Sustainability Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Revue de géographie alpine Abbreviated Journal rga
Volume 106 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords (up) Darkness; Society
Abstract This article presents our approach to construct the night-time environment (NE) as an interdisciplinary research subject. Understood within the framework of various French mountain areas, we show that the NE is highly indicative of different development trajectories. We analyse them by combining traditional social science research into territory with the ecosystem approaches of the experimental sciences. We show how the NE resource (NER) is transformed into an operator that facilitates the transition towards sustainability. By highlighting three of the NE’s specifications, this work lays the groundwork for a transdisciplinary approach.
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ISSN 0035-1121 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1867
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Author Stone, T.
Title The Value of Darkness: A Moral Framework for Urban Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Science and Engineering Ethics Abbreviated Journal Sci Eng Ethics
Volume 24 Issue 2 Pages 607-628
Keywords (up) Darkness; Society
Abstract The adverse effects of artificial nighttime lighting, known as light pollution, are emerging as an important environmental issue. To address these effects, current scientific research focuses mainly on identifying what is bad or undesirable about certain types and uses of lighting at night. This paper adopts a value-sensitive approach, focusing instead on what is good about darkness at night. In doing so, it offers a first comprehensive analysis of the environmental value of darkness at night from within applied ethics. A design for values orientation is utilized to conceptualize, define, and categorize the ways in which value is derived from darkness. Nine values are identified and categorized via their type of good, temporal outlook, and spatial characteristics. Furthermore, these nine values are translated into prima facie moral obligations that should be incorporated into future design choices, policy-making, and innovations to nighttime lighting. Thus, the value of darkness is analyzed with the practical goal of informing future decision-making about urban nighttime lighting.
Address Ethics and Philosophy of Technology Section, Delft University of Technology, Jaffalaan 5, 2628 BX, Delft, The Netherlands. t.w.stone@tudelft.nl
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1353-3452 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28597220; PMCID:PMC5876417 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2225
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