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Author Smolensky, M.H.; Sackett-Lundeen, L.L.; Portaluppi, F.
Title Nocturnal light pollution and underexposure to daytime sunlight: Complementary mechanisms of circadian disruption and related diseases Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume Issue Pages 1-20
Keywords Human Health; Artificial light at night; cancer; circadian time structure; development and disruption; melatonin; sleep/wake cycle disturbance; sunlight; vitamin D; vitamin D deficiency; circadian time structure; circadian rhythm; desynchrony
Abstract Routine exposure to artificial light at night (ALAN) in work, home, and community settings is linked with increased risk of breast and prostate cancer (BC, PC) in normally sighted women and men, the hypothesized biological rhythm mechanisms being frequent nocturnal melatonin synthesis suppression, circadian time structure (CTS) desynchronization, and sleep/wake cycle disruption with sleep deprivation. ALAN-induced perturbation of the CTS melatonin synchronizer signal is communicated maternally at the very onset of life and after birth via breast or artificial formula feedings. Nighttime use of personal computers, mobile phones, electronic tablets, televisions, and the like – now epidemic in adolescents and adults and highly prevalent in pre-school and school-aged children – is a new source of ALAN. However, ALAN exposure occurs concomitantly with almost complete absence of daytime sunlight, whose blue-violet (446-484 nm lambda) spectrum synchronizes the CTS and whose UV-B (290-315 nm lambda) spectrum stimulates vitamin D synthesis. Under natural conditions and clear skies, day/night and annual cycles of UV-B irradiation drive corresponding periodicities in vitamin D synthesis and numerous bioprocesses regulated by active metabolites augment and strengthen the biological time structure. Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency are widespread in children and adults in developed and developing countries as a consequence of inadequate sunlight exposure. Past epidemiologic studies have focused either on exposure to too little daytime UV-B or too much ALAN, respectively, on vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency or melatonin suppression in relation to risk of cancer and other, e.g., psychiatric, hypertensive, cardiac, and vascular, so-called, diseases of civilization. The observed elevated incidence of medical conditions the two are alleged to influence through many complementary bioprocesses of cells, tissues, and organs led us to examine effects of the totality of the artificial light environment in which humans reside today. Never have chronobiologic or epidemiologic investigations comprehensively researched the potentially deleterious consequences of the combination of suppressed vitamin D plus melatonin synthesis due to life in today's man-made artificial light environment, which in our opinion is long overdue.
Address c Hypertension Center, S. Anna University Hospital, University of Ferrara , Ferrara , Italy
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:26374931 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1271
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Author Edison, T.A.
Title The Success of the Electric Light Type Magazine Article
Year 1880 Publication The North American Review Abbreviated Journal N. American Rev.
Volume 131 Issue 287 Pages 295-300
Keywords Society; history; artificial light; Lighting
Abstract (none)
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher University of Northern Iowa Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1272
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Author Derrien, M.M; Patricia A. Stokowski, P.A; Manning, R.E.
Title A Rhetorical Analysis of National Park Service and Community Leader Discourses about Night Skies at Acadia National Park Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Journal of Park and Recreation Administration Abbreviated Journal J. of Park and Rec. Admin.
Volume 33 Issue 3 Pages 32-47
Keywords Society; parks; outreach; Acadia National Park
Abstract Dark night skies are becoming increasingly scarce as human populations increase and development continues to sprawl. Light pollution, and its ecological, social, and cultural impacts are transboundary, multi-jurisdictional issues that require planning and management involving multiple actors on multiple scales. This study examines management of dark night skies at Acadia National Park, where the park and community have worked to keep the night skies relatively dark. Park service managers and community leaders were interviewed, and qualitative methods were used to better understand how each group discursively made the case for the meaning and management of dark night skies at Acadia. In addition to analyzing the explicit content of interviews, enthymemes--arguments with implicit claims--were also evaluated. The rhetorical analysis also focused on the stylistic techniques that supported enthymematic claims; these included establishing legitimacy and credibility, positioning leaders relative to others, and ambiguity. This study showed that NPS arguments tended to frame the role of the community as “buying in” to NPS's efforts to uphold its new night sky-inclusive management policies, while community leaders argued that the night sky was an economic asset, discursively retaining their autonomous interests. Rhetorical discourses functioned to forge the semblance of agreement and the appearance of a “win-win” situation for both groups, even though the underlying premises of their arguments were often and the goals of its management. Other research has found that contested case, contested meanings seemed to represent a case of adjustment and shared responsibility.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Sagamore Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1276
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M.
Title Potential applicability of persuasive communication to light-glow reduction efforts: a case study of marine turtle conservation Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal Environ Manage
Volume 54 Issue 3 Pages 583-595
Keywords Society; Adolescent; Adult; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Animals; *Conservation of Natural Resources; Culture; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; Middle Aged; Persuasive Communication; Public Opinion; Queensland; Questionnaires; *Turtles; Young Adult
Abstract Artificial lighting along coastlines poses a significant threat to marine turtles due to the importance of light for their natural orientation at the nesting beach. Effective lighting management requires widespread support and participation, yet engaging the public with light reduction initiatives is difficult because benefits associated with artificial lighting are deeply entrenched within modern society. We present a case study from Queensland, Australia, where an active light-glow reduction campaign has been in place since 2008 to protect nesting turtles. Semi-structured questionnaires explored community beliefs about reducing light and evaluated the potential for using persuasive communication techniques based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to increase engagement with light reduction. Respondents (n = 352) had moderate to strong intentions to reduce light. TPB variables explained a significant proportion of variance in intention (multiple regression: R (2) = 0.54-0.69, P < 0.001), but adding a personal norm variable improved the model (R (2) = 0.73-0.79, P < 0.001). Significant differences in belief strength between campaign compliers and non-compliers suggest that targeting the beliefs reducing light leads to “increased protection of local turtles” (P < 0.01) and/or “benefits to the local economy” (P < 0.05), in combination with an appeal to personal norms, would produce the strongest persuasion potential for future communications. Selective legislation and commitment strategies may be further useful strategies to increase community light reduction. As artificial light continues to gain attention as a pollutant, our methods and findings will be of interest to anyone needing to manage public artificial lighting.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0364-152X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24957580 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1283
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Author Kamrowski, R.L.; Sutton, S.G.; Tobin, R.C.; Hamann, M.
Title Balancing artificial light at night with turtle conservation? Coastal community engagement with light-glow reduction Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Environmental Conservation Abbreviated Journal Envir. Conserv.
Volume 42 Issue 02 Pages 171-181
Keywords Society; behaviour; community engagement; conservation; constraints; light pollution; marine turtles
Abstract Artificial lighting is a significant threat to biodiversity. Although efforts to reduce lighting are crucial for species’ conservation efforts, management is challenging because light at night is integral to modern society and light use is increasing with population and economic growth. The development and evaluation of appropriate light management strategies will require positive public support, and a comprehensive understanding of public engagement with light pollution. This is the first study to examine public engagement with reducing light at night for the protection of a threatened species. A community campaign to reduce artificial light use was initiated in 2008 to protect marine turtles at a globally significant nesting beach. Semi-structured questionnaires assessed community engagement with light-glow reduction, using an existing theoretical constraints framework. Despite high levels of cognitive and affective engagement (knowledge and concern), behavioural engagement (action) with light reduction in this community was limited. Community perceptions of light reduction were dominated by ‘uncertainty and scepticism’ and ‘externalizing responsibility/blame’, implying that behavioural engagement in this community may be increased by addressing these widely-held perceptions using modified campaign materials and/or strategic legislation. Further refinement of the theoretical constraints framework would better guide future empirical and conceptual research to improve understanding of public engagement with critical environmental issues.
Address School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD, 4811, Australia, ruth.kamrowski(at)my.jcu.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Cambridge Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor (up) Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-8929 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1284
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