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Author O'Connell, H. A.
Title Streetlights in the city: understanding the distribution of Houston streetlights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting; Society
Abstract There are at least 173,724 streetlights in the city of Houston, or about 15 streetlights per mile of roadway in the average Houston neighborhood. But there is wide variation in streetlight density across those neighborhoods. This report offers several important findings. First, black and Hispanic neighborhoods have higher concentrations of streetlights than white neighborhoods. Second, mixed-income neighborhoods tend to have higher concentrations of streetlights than the city’s wealthiest and poorest neighborhoods.

In the context of this discussion, we should consider the possibility that some areas of the city are overly lit in addition to being concerned about the places without enough lights. There may be a point at which having more lights actually becomes a negative. We need to get a better understanding of the lived consequences of the level of available lighting before making any further decisions regarding city streetlights.
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Publisher Rice | Kinder Institute for urban research Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
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Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2068
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Author Stone, T.
Title Re-envisioning the Nocturnal Sublime: On the Ethics and Aesthetics of Nighttime Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Topoi Abbreviated Journal
Volume In press Issue Pages
Keywords Society
Abstract Grounded in the practical problem of light pollution, this paper examines the aesthetic dimensions of urban and natural darkness, and its impact on how we perceive and evaluate nighttime lighting. It is argued that competing notions of the sublime, manifested through artificial illumination and the natural night sky respectively, reinforce a geographical dualism between cities and wilderness. To challenge this spatial differentiation, recent work in urban-focused environmental ethics, as well as environmental aesthetics, are utilized to envision the moral and aesthetic possibilities of a new urban nocturnal sublime. Through articulating the aspirations and constraints of a new urban nocturnal experience, this paper elucidates the axiological dimensions of light pollution, draws attention to nightscapes as a site of importance for urban-focused (environmental) philosophy, and examines the enduring relevance of the sublime for both the design of nighttime illumination and the appreciation of the night sky.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2098
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Author Horrace, W.C.; Rohlin, S.M.
Title How Dark Is Dark? Bright Lights, Big City, Racial Profiling Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Review of Economics and Statistics Abbreviated Journal Review of Economics and Statistics
Volume 98 Issue 2 Pages 226-232
Keywords Psychology; Public Safety; Society
Abstract Grogger and Ridgeway (2006) use the daylight saving time shift to develop a police racial profiling test that is based on differences in driver race visibility and (hence) the race distribution of traffic stops across daylight and darkness. However, urban environments may be well lit at night, eroding the power of their test. We refine their test using streetlight location data in Syracuse, New York, and the results change in the direction of finding profiling of black drivers. Our preferred specification suggests that the odds of a black driver being stopped (relative to nonblack drivers) increase 15% in daylight compared to darkness.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0034-6535 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2167
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title The benefits of light at night Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment
Volume 151 Issue Pages 356-367
Keywords Lighting; Society; Conservation
Abstract The use of light at night continues to increase. Simply put, this is because without light we are deprived of our premier sense, vision. By enabling vision the use of light at night delivers a number of benefits to people. Such benefits include greater safety for pedestrians and drivers, reduced fear of crime, more use of outdoor facilities after dark, enhanced economic growth and the creation of built and natural environments that are a source of beauty and entertainment. This suggests that the use of light at night is linked to some very basic human motivations which in turn means that people value such benefits and will not willingly abandon them. Fortunately, careful lighting design, soundly-based outdoor lighting standards and new lighting and sensor technology offer the possibility of providing the benefits of light at night while minimizing the impact on the environment.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2171
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Author Kalousová, L.; Xiao, B.; Burgard, S.A.
Title Material hardship and sleep: results from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health
Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 113-127
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep; sleep inequality; Society; sleep outcomes
Abstract Objective

Sleep is unequally distributed in the US population. People with low socioeconomic status report worse quality and shorter sleep than people with high socioeconomic status. Past research hypothesized that a potential reason for this link could be exposure to material hardship. This study examines the associations between several material hardships and sleep outcomes.

Methods

We use population-representative cross-sectional data (n = 730) from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study collected in 2013 and examine the associations between 6 indicators of material hardship (employment instability, financial problems, housing instability, food insecurity, forgone medical care, and the total number of material hardships reported) and 3 sleep outcomes (short sleep, sleep problems, and nonrestorative sleep). We build multivariable logistic regression models controlling for respondents’ characteristics and light pollution near their residence.

Results

In unadjusted models, all material hardships were associated with negative sleep outcomes. In adjusted models, forgone medical care was a statistically significant predictor of nonrestorative sleep (average marginal effect 0.16), as was employment instability (average marginal effect 0.12). The probability of sleep problems and nonrestorative sleep increased with a greater number of hardships overall (average marginal effects of .02 and .05, respectively). We found marginally statistically significant positive associations between food insecurity and short sleep and sleep problems.

Conclusions

This study finds that, except when considering foregone medical care, employment instability, and total count of material hardships, associations between material hardship and negative sleep outcomes are not statistically significant after adjusting for a robust set of sociodemographic and health characteristics.
Address Nuffield College, 1 New Rd, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom; lucie.kalousova(at)nuffield.ox.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2352-7218 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2180
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