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Author Li, X.; Zhang, R.; Huang, C.; Li, D.
Title Detecting 2014 Northern Iraq Insurgency using night-time light imagery Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing
Volume 36 Issue 13 Pages 3446-3458
Keywords Remote Sensing; Society
Abstract The territory controlled by the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) has grown rapidly since the start of the Syrian Civil War. In 2014, ISIS expanded its control into Northern Iraq, leading to a major humanitarian crisis in the region. This study makes use of night-time light images to detect the ISIS offensive against Iraq in 2014. We developed an algorithm to separate city lights from oilfield lights, based on an urban extent map. The image analysis indicates that all Northern Iraqi provinces experienced a large reduction in city lighting, varying from 16% to 93%. This reduction is especially evident in the three ISIS-controlled provinces, Al-Anbar, Saladin, and Ninawa, where the reduction of city lighting from May to December 2014 was 59%, 50%, and 93%, respectively. Most of the ISIS-controlled cities, including Mosul and Tikrit, experienced a loss of more than 90% in city lighting after being seized by ISIS, while the cities controlled by the Iraqi security forces (ISF) did not lose as much lighting. In contrast, the city lights in Ar Raqqa, Syria, ISIS’s de facto capital, did not show a decline after that region was seized by ISIS. We conclude that the conflict in Northern Iraq has resulted in a major loss of city lighting and that this loss is most likely due to lack of access to the Iraqi electricity supply grid rather than a deliberate ISIS strategy.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1875
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Author Li, X.; Chen, F.; Chen, X.
Title Satellite-Observed Nighttime Light Variation as Evidence for Global Armed Conflicts Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal IEEE J. Sel. Top. Appl. Earth Observations Remote Sensing
Volume 6 Issue 5 Pages 2302-2315
Keywords Remote Sensing; Society
Abstract The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of nighttime light images, acquired with Defense Meteorological Satellite Program Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS), in evaluating global armed conflicts. To achieve this purpose, we assessed the relationship between armed conflicts and the satellite-observed nighttime light variation over 159 countries through annual composites of the nighttime light images. Firstly, a light ratio index was developed to reduce the data inconsistency of annual nighttime light images during 1992-2010. Then 12 countries were selected as examples for a primary investigation, and we found the outbreak of a war can reduce the light and the ceasefire can increase the light from the remote sensing images, which indicates armed conflict events always have significant impact on the nighttime light. Based on this assertion, a nighttime light variation index (NLVI) was developed to quantify the variation of the time series nighttime light. Then using conditional probability analysis, the probability of a country suffering from armed conflicts increases with increase of NLVI. Particularly, when the NLVI value is in a very high level as defined, 80% of the countries have experienced armed conflicts. Furthermore, using correlation analysis, the number of global armed conflicts is highly correlated with the global NLVI in temporal dimension, with a correlation coefficient larger than 0.77. In summary, the potential of nighttime light images in armed conflict evaluation is extended from a regional scale to a global scale by this study.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1939-1404 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1876
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Author Meier; J.M.
Title Temporal Profiles of Urban Lighting: Proposal for a research design and first results from three sites in Berlin Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Sustainable Lighting Abbreviated Journal
Volume 20 Issue Pages 11-28
Keywords Instrumentation; Lighting; Society
Abstract This paper presents and experimentally applies a research design for studying the temporal dimension of outdoor artificial illumination in complex lightscapes such as those of urban centres. It contributes to filling the gap between analyses of high-resolution aerial imagery, which provide detailed but static information on the spatial composition of lightscapes, and existing methods for studying their dynamics, which measure changes at high levels of aggregation. The research design adopts a small-scale, detailed approach by using close-range time-lapse videos to document the on/off patterns of individual light sources as the night progresses. It provides a framework and vocabulary for discrete and comparative analyses of the identified temporal profiles of lighting. This allows for pinpointing similarities and differences among the dynamics of different places, nights or categories of lighting. Its application to three case studies in Berlin indicate that switch-on and switch-off times are clustered, resulting in static and dynamic phases of the night. Midnight is a temporal fault-line, after which full illumination ends as portions of the illumination are extinguished. Switch-off times and -rates differ among the three lightscapes and, especially, among four functional types of lighting that were differentiated: infrastructural and commercial units largely remain on all night, while substantial portions of architectural and indoor lighting are switched off, though at fairly different times. Such findings are valuable for studies based on data collected at specific points in time (aerial imagery, measurements), for informing and monitoring temporally oriented lighting policies, and for understanding urban dynamics at large.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1901
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Author Mulvin, D.
Title Media Prophylaxis: Night Modes and the Politics of Preventing Harm Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Information & Culture Abbreviated Journal Information & Culture
Volume 53 Issue 2 Pages 175-202
Keywords History; Lighting; Society
Abstract This article develops the term “media prophylaxis” to analyze the ways technologies are applied to challenges of calibrating one’s body with its environment and as defenses against endemic, human-made harms. In recent years, self-illuminated screens (like those of computers, phones, and tablets) have been identified by scientists, journalists, and concerned individuals as particularly pernicious sources of sleep-disrupting light. By tracing the history of circadian research, the effects of light on sleep patterns, and the recent appearance of software like “f.lux,” Apple’s “Night Shift,” and “Twilight,” this article shows how media-prophylactic technologies can individualize responsibility for preventing harm while simultaneously surfacing otherwise ignored forms of chronic suffering.
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Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 2164-8034 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1917
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Author Levin, N.; Ali, S.; Crandall, D.
Title Utilizing remote sensing and big data to quantify conflict intensity: The Arab Spring as a case study Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Applied Geography Abbreviated Journal Applied Geography
Volume 94 Issue Pages 1-17
Keywords Remote Sensing; Society; Human Health
Abstract Tracking global and regional conflict zones requires spatially explicit information in near real-time. Here, we examined the potential of remote sensing time-series data (night lights) and big data (data mining of news events and Flickr photos) for monitoring and understanding crisis development and refugee flows. We used the recent Arab Spring as a case study, and examined temporal trends in monthly time series of variables which we hypothesized to indicate conflict intensity, covering all Arab countries. Both Flickr photos and night-time lights proved as sensitive indicators for loss of economic and human capital, and news items from the Global Data on Events, Location and Tone (GDELT) project on fight events were positively correlated with actual deaths from conflicts. We propose that big data and remote sensing datasets have potential to provide disaggregated and timely data on conflicts where official statistics are lacking, offering an effective approach for monitoring geopolitical and environmental changes on Earth.
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Language Summary Language (up) Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0143-6228 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1918
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