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Author Nordhaus, W.; Chen, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A sharper image? Estimates of the precision of nighttime lights as a proxy for economic statistics Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Journal of Economic Geography Abbreviated Journal J of Econ Geog  
  Volume 15 Issue 1 Pages 217-246  
  Keywords Nighttime lights; luminosity; output measurement; national accounts; proxy measures; social science; economics; remote sensing  
  Abstract Much aggregate social-science analysis relies upon the standard national income and product accounts as a source of economic data. These are recognized to be defective in many poor countries, and are missing at the regional level for large parts of the world. Using updated luminosity (or nighttime lights) data, the present study examines whether such data contain useful information for estimating national and regional incomes and output. The bootstrap method is used for estimating the statistical precision of the estimates of the contribution of the lights proxy. We conclude that there may be substantial cross-sectional information in lights data for countries with low-quality statistical systems. However, lights data provide very little additional information for countries with high-quality data wherever standard data are available. The largest statistical concerns arise from uncertainties about the precision of standard national accounts data.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Oxford University Press Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 363  
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Hänel, A.; Hölker, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Redefining efficiency for outdoor lighting Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Energy & Environmental Science Abbreviated Journal Energy Environ. Sci.  
  Volume 7 Issue 6 Pages 1806  
  Keywords *Lighting; outdoor lighting; luminous efficiency; lighting standards; public policy; illuminance; street lighting  
  Abstract Improvements in the luminous efficiency of outdoor lamps might not result in energy savings or reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. The reason for this is a rebound effect: when light becomes cheaper, many users will increase illumination, and some previously unlit areas may become lit. We present three policy recommendations that work together to guarantee major energy reductions in street lighting systems. First, taking advantage of new technologies to use light only when and where it is needed. Second, defining maximum permitted illuminances for roadway lighting. Third, defining street lighting system efficiency in terms of kilowatt hours per kilometer per year. Adoption of these policies would not only save energy, but would greatly reduce the amount of light pollution produced by cities. The goal of lighting policy should be to provide the light needed for any given task while minimizing both the energy use and negative environmental side effects of the light.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1754-5692 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 244  
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Author Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Tuttle, B.T.; Baugh, K.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Spectral identification of lighting type and character Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)  
  Volume 10 Issue 4 Pages 3961-3988  
  Keywords Led; Nightsat; lighting efficiency; lighting types; nighttime lights; photopic band  
  Abstract We investigated the optimal spectral bands for the identification of lighting types and the estimation of four major indices used to measure the efficiency or character of lighting. To accomplish these objectives we collected high-resolution emission spectra (350 to 2,500 nm) for forty-three different lamps, encompassing nine of the major types of lamps used worldwide. The narrow band emission spectra were used to simulate radiances in eight spectral bands including the human eye photoreceptor bands (photopic, scotopic, and “meltopic”) plus five spectral bands in the visible and near-infrared modeled on bands flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM). The high-resolution continuous spectra are superior to the broad band combinations for the identification of lighting type and are the standard for calculation of Luminous Efficacy of Radiation (LER), Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) and Color Rendering Index (CRI). Given the high cost that would be associated with building and flying a hyperspectral sensor with detection limits low enough to observe nighttime lights we conclude that it would be more feasible to fly an instrument with a limited number of broad spectral bands in the visible to near infrared. The best set of broad spectral bands among those tested is blue, green, red and NIR bands modeled on the band set flown on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. This set provides low errors on the identification of lighting types and reasonable estimates of LER and CCT when compared to the other broad band set tested. None of the broad band sets tested could make reasonable estimates of Luminous Efficacy (LE) or CRI. The photopic band proved useful for the estimation of LER. However, the three photoreceptor bands performed poorly in the identification of lighting types when compared to the bands modeled on the Landsat Thematic Mapper. Our conclusion is that it is feasible to identify lighting type and make reasonable estimates of LER and CCT using four or more spectral bands with minimal spectral overlap spanning the 0.4 to 1.0 um region.  
  Address Earth Observation Group, Solar and Terrestrial Division, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, 325 Broadway, Boulder, CO 80305, USA. chris.elvidge@noaa.gov  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22319336; PMCID:PMC3274255 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 275  
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Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Heller, S.; Berghahn, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light and nocturnal activity in gammarids Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication PeerJ Abbreviated Journal PeerJ  
  Volume 2 Issue Pages e279  
  Keywords Acclimation; Gammarus; Invertebrate drift; Light pollution; Multispecies freshwater biomonitor  
  Abstract Artificial light is gaining attention as a potential stressor to aquatic ecosystems. Artificial lights located near streams increase light levels experienced by stream invertebrates and we hypothesized light would depress night drift rates. We also hypothesized that the effect of light on drift rates would decrease over time as the invertebrates acclimated to the new light level over the course of one month's exposure. These hypotheses were tested by placing Gammarus spp. in eight, 75 m x 1 m artificial flumes. One flume was exposed to strong (416 lx) artificial light at night. This strong light created a gradient between 4.19 and 0.04 lx over the neighboring six artificial flumes, while a control flume was completely covered with black plastic at night. Night-time light measurements taken in the Berlin area confirm that half the flumes were at light levels experienced by urban aquatic invertebrates. Surprisingly, no light treatment affected gammarid drift rates. In contrast, physical activity measurements of in situ individually caged G. roeseli showed they increased short-term activity levels in nights of complete darkness and decreased activity levels in brightly lit flumes. Both nocturnal and diurnal drift increased, and day drift rates were unexpectadly higher than nocturnal drift.  
  Address Umweltbundesamt , Berlin , Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2167-8359 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24688857; PMCID:PMC3961812 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 322  
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Author Sperber, A.N.; Elmore, A.C.; Crow, M.L.; Cawlfield, J.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Performance evaluation of energy efficient lighting associated with renewable energy applications Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Renewable Energy Abbreviated Journal Renewable Energy  
  Volume 44 Issue Pages 423-430  
  Keywords Renewable energy; Energy efficiency; Ultra capacitor; Light emitting diodes; Metal halide; LED; LED lighting  
  Abstract Energy efficiency is a primary consideration when designing off-grid renewable energy systems including portable micro-grids. This study focuses on characterizing the potential benefits associated with using energy efficient exterior area lighting commonly associated with remote installations. Light emitting diode (LED) luminaires are becoming more commercially available, and this study compares two LED products designed for exterior lighting to traditional metal halide lamps. The characterization focuses on the use of a diesel generator, battery bank, and a bank of ultra capacitors (UCAPs) to power the lights because these systems are also used to generate or store energy at renewable energy-powered micro-grids. This field-based study quantifies the illuminance provided by each lighting system, diesel consumption rates associated with powering the lights and/or charging the batteries and UCAPs, and the time of operation for each lighting system when powered by a single discharge cycle of the batteries and UCAPs. The energy efficiency benefit of the LED luminaires is offset by their lower illuminance. However, a comparison of lighting standards for specific purposes such as security lighting indicates that LEDs may be appropriate for applications where a metal halide system would provide significantly more illumination than required at a much higher energy cost. For those purposes where higher levels of illuminance are required, the data presented in the paper may be useful in designing a renewable energy-powered micro-grid that uses multiple LED fixtures to illuminate an exterior area that is currently illuminated by a single metal halide light stand.  
  Address Geological Engineering, Missouri University of Science and Technology, 129 McNutt Hall, 1400 N. Bishop Avenue Rolla, MO 65409, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-1481 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 335  
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