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Author Brainard, G.C.; Sliney, D.; Hanifin, J.P.; Glickman, G.; Byrne, B.; Greeson, J.M.; Jasser, S.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sensitivity of the human circadian system to short-wavelength (420-nm) light Type Journal Article
  Year 2008 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 23 Issue 5 Pages 379-386  
  Keywords (up) Human Health; Adult; Circadian Rhythm/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/metabolism; Models, Biological; Neurosecretory Systems; Photons; Pineal Gland/metabolism; Retinal Ganglion Cells/*metabolism; Vision, Ocular  
  Abstract The circadian and neurobehavioral effects of light are primarily mediated by a retinal ganglion cell photoreceptor in the mammalian eye containing the photopigment melanopsin. Nine action spectrum studies using rodents, monkeys, and humans for these responses indicate peak sensitivities in the blue region of the visible spectrum ranging from 459 to 484 nm, with some disagreement in short-wavelength sensitivity of the spectrum. The aim of this work was to quantify the sensitivity of human volunteers to monochromatic 420-nm light for plasma melatonin suppression. Adult female (n=14) and male (n=12) subjects participated in 2 studies, each employing a within-subjects design. In a fluence-response study, subjects (n=8) were tested with 8 light irradiances at 420 nm ranging over a 4-log unit photon density range of 10(10) to 10(14) photons/cm(2)/sec and 1 dark exposure control night. In the other study, subjects (n=18) completed an experiment comparing melatonin suppression with equal photon doses (1.21 x 10(13) photons/cm(2)/sec) of 420 nm and 460 nm monochromatic light and a dark exposure control night. The first study demonstrated a clear fluence-response relationship between 420-nm light and melatonin suppression (p<0.001) with a half-saturation constant of 2.74 x 10(11) photons/cm(2)/sec. The second study showed that 460-nm light is significantly stronger than 420-nm light for suppressing melatonin (p<0.04). Together, the results clarify the visible short-wavelength sensitivity of the human melatonin suppression action spectrum. This basic physiological finding may be useful for optimizing lighting for therapeutic and other applications.  
  Address Department of Neurology, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA. george.brainard@jefferson.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:18838601 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 724  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Berson, D.M.; Dunn, F.A.; Takao, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Phototransduction by retinal ganglion cells that set the circadian clock Type Journal Article
  Year 2002 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 295 Issue 5557 Pages 1070-1073  
  Keywords (up) Human Health; Animals; Axons/ultrastructure; *Biological Clocks; *Circadian Rhythm; Dendrites/ultrastructure; Isoquinolines; Kinetics; Light; *Light Signal Transduction; Patch-Clamp Techniques; Rats; Rats, Sprague-Dawley; Retinal Ganglion Cells/chemistry/cytology/*physiology; Rod Opsins/analysis/physiology; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/cytology/*physiology  
  Abstract Light synchronizes mammalian circadian rhythms with environmental time by modulating retinal input to the circadian pacemaker-the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. Such photic entrainment requires neither rods nor cones, the only known retinal photoreceptors. Here, we show that retinal ganglion cells innervating the SCN are intrinsically photosensitive. Unlike other ganglion cells, they depolarized in response to light even when all synaptic input from rods and cones was blocked. The sensitivity, spectral tuning, and slow kinetics of this light response matched those of the photic entrainment mechanism, suggesting that these ganglion cells may be the primary photoreceptors for this system.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Brown University, Providence, RI, 02912 USA. David_Berson@brown.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:11834835 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 720  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Sherman, H.; Gutman, R.; Chapnik, N.; Meylan, J.; le Coutre, J.; Froy, O. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Caffeine alters circadian rhythms and expression of disease and metabolic markers Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology Abbreviated Journal Int J Biochem Cell Biol  
  Volume 43 Issue 5 Pages 829-838  
  Keywords (up) Human Health; Animals; Biological Markers/blood/metabolism; Body Weight/drug effects/physiology; Caffeine/*pharmacology; Caloric Restriction; Circadian Rhythm/*drug effects/genetics/physiology; *Disease/genetics; Eating/drug effects/physiology; Gene Expression Regulation/*drug effects/genetics; HEK293 Cells; Humans; Inflammation/metabolism; Male; Mice; Mice, Inbred C57BL; Motor Activity/drug effects/physiology  
  Abstract The circadian clock regulates many aspects of physiology, energy metabolism, and sleep. Restricted feeding (RF), a regimen that restricts the duration of food availability entrains the circadian clock. Caffeine has been shown to affect both metabolism and sleep. However, its effect on clock gene and clock-controlled gene expression has not been studied. Here, we tested the effect of caffeine on circadian rhythms and the expression of disease and metabolic markers in the serum, liver, and jejunum of mice supplemented with caffeine under ad libitum (AL) feeding or RF for 16 weeks. Caffeine significantly affected circadian oscillation and the daily levels of disease and metabolic markers. Under AL, caffeine reduced the average daily mRNA levels of certain disease and inflammatory markers, such as liver alpha fetoprotein (Afp), C-reactive protein (Crp), jejunum alanine aminotransferase (Alt), growth arrest and DNA damage 45beta (Gadd45beta), Interleukin 1alpha (Il-1alpha), Il-1beta mRNA and serum plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1). Under RF, caffeine reduced the average daily levels of Alt, Gadd45beta, Il-1alpha and Il-1beta mRNA in the jejunum, but not in the liver. In addition, caffeine supplementation led to decreased expression of catabolic factors under RF. In conclusion, caffeine affects circadian gene expression and metabolism possibly leading to beneficial effects mainly under AL feeding.  
  Address Institute of Biochemistry, Food Science and Nutrition, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot 76100, Israel  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1357-2725 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21352949 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 810  
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Author Foster, R.G.; Hankins, M.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian vision Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 17 Issue 17 Pages R746-51  
  Keywords (up) Human Health; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Mice; Photoreceptor Cells, Vertebrate/*physiology; Rats; Rod Opsins/physiology; Vision, Ocular/*physiology  
  Abstract  
  Address Department of Ophthalmology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK. russell.foster@eye.ox.ac.uk  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17803920 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 751  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Foster, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neurobiology: bright blue times Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 433 Issue 7027 Pages 698-699  
  Keywords (up) Human Health; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/radiation effects; Color Perception/physiology/*radiation effects; Humans; *Light; Light Signal Transduction/*radiation effects; Mice; Retinal Ganglion Cells/cytology/physiology/radiation effects; Retinaldehyde/chemistry/metabolism; Rod Opsins/*metabolism; NASA Discipline Space Human Factors; Non-NASA Center  
  Abstract  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:15716938 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 750  
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