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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does light pollution alter daylength? A test using light loggers on free-ranging European blackbirds (Turdus merula) Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140118  
  Keywords Animals; urbanization; light pollution; artificial light at night; light loggers; daylength; photoperiod; Turdus merula; European blackbird  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is one of the most apparent environmental changes accompanying anthropogenic habitat change. The global increase in light pollution poses new challenges to wild species, but we still have limited understanding of the temporal and spatial pattern of exposure to light at night. In particular, it has been suggested by several studies that animals exposed to light pollution, such as songbirds, perceive a longer daylength compared with conspecifics living in natural darker areas, but direct tests of such a hypothesis are still lacking. Here, we use a combination of light loggers deployed on individual European blackbirds, as well as automated radiotelemetry,to examine whether urban birds are exposed to a longer daylength than forest counterparts. We first used activity data from forest birds to determine the level of light intensity which defines the onset and offset of daily activity in rural areas. We then used this value as threshold to calculate the subjective perceived daylength of both forest and urban blackbirds. In March, when reproductive growth occurs, urban birds were exposed on average to a 49-min longer subjective perceived daylength than forest ones, which corresponds to a 19-day difference in photoperiod at this time of the year. In the field, urban blackbirds reached reproductive maturity 19 day earlier than rural birds, suggesting that light pollution could be responsible of most of the variation in reproductive timing found between urban and rural dwellers. We conclude that light at night is the most relevant change in ambient light affecting biological rhythms in avian urban-dwellers, most likely via a modification of the perceived photoperiod.  
  Address Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, UK; davide.dominoni@glasgow.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1117  
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Author Chen, H.; Sun, C.; Chen, X.; Chiang, K.; Xiong, X. url  doi
openurl 
  Title On-orbit calibration and performance of S-NPP VIIRS DNB Type Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proc. SPIE 9881, Earth Observing Missions and Sensors: Development, Implementation, and Characterization IV, 98812B (May 2, 2016) Abbreviated Journal Proc. SPIE 9881  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; VIIRS, Suomi; VIIRS DNB; day-night band; calibration; Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems; SIPS; Orbital dynamics; Sensors; Stray light; Contamination; Diffusers; Earth sciences; Equipment and services  
  Abstract The S-NPP VIIRS instrument has successfully operated since its launch in October 2011. The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) is a panchromatic channel covering wavelengths from 0.5 to 0.9 μm that is capable of observing Earth scenes during both day and nighttime orbits at a spatial resolution of 750 m. To cover the large dynamic range, the DNB operates at low, mid, or high gain stages, and it uses an onboard solar diffuser (SD) for its low gain stage calibration. The SD observations also provide a means to compute gain ratios of low-to-mid and mid-to-high gain stages. This paper describes the DNB on-orbit calibration methodologies used by the VIIRS Characterization Support Team (VCST) in supporting the NASA earth science community with consistent VIIRS sensor data records (SDRs) made available by the Land Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS). It provides an assessment and update of DNB on-orbit performance, including the SD degradation in the DNB spectral range, detector gain and gain ratio trending, stray light contamination and its correction. Also presented in this paper are performance validations based on earth scenes and lunar observations.  
  Address Science Systems and Applications, Inc.  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher SPIE Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1473  
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Author Weil, Z.M.; Borniger, J.C.; Cisse, Y.M.; Abi Salloum, B.A.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Neuroendocrine control of photoperiodic changes in immune function Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology Abbreviated Journal Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology  
  Volume 37 Issue Pages 108-118  
  Keywords Animals; Photoperiod; Melatonin day length; Seasonality immune function; Neuroendocrine  
  Abstract Seasonal variation in immune function putatively maximizes survival and reproductive success. Day length (photoperiod) is the most potent signal for time of year. Animals typically organize breeding, growth, and behavior to adapt to spatial and temporal niches. Outside the tropics individuals monitor photoperiod to support adaptations favoring survival and reproductive success. Changes in day length allow anticipation of seasonal changes in temperature and food availability that are critical for reproductive success. Immune function is typically bolstered during winter, whereas reproduction and growth are favored during summer. We provide an overview of how photoperiod influences neuronal function and melatonin secretion, how melatonin acts directly and indirectly to govern seasonal changes in immune function, and the manner by which other neuroendocrine effectors such as glucocorticoids, prolactin, thyroid, and sex steroid hormones modulate seasonal variations in immune function. Potential future research avenues include commensal gut microbiota and light pollution influences on photoperiodic responses.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University, Biomedical Research Tower #618, 460 West 12th Avenue, Columbus, OH, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0091-3022 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1062  
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