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Author Foster, R.G.; Roenneberg, T.
Title Human responses to the geophysical daily, annual and lunar cycles Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 18 Issue 17 Pages R784-R794
Keywords Human Health; Biological Clocks; Birth Rate; Circadian Rhythm; Death; Female; Human Activities; Humans; Male; Moon; *Periodicity; Photoperiod; Seasons; Sexual Behavior; Sleep
Abstract Collectively the daily, seasonal, lunar and tidal geophysical cycles regulate much of the temporal biology of life on Earth. The increasing isolation of human societies from these geophysical cycles, as a result of improved living conditions, high-quality nutrition and 24/7 working practices, have led many to believe that human biology functions independently of them. Yet recent studies have highlighted the dominant role that our circadian clock plays in the organisation of 24 hour patterns of behaviour and physiology. Preferred wake and sleep times are to a large extent driven by an endogenous temporal program that uses sunlight as an entraining cue. The alarm clock can drive human activity rhythms but has little direct effect on our endogenous 24 hour physiology. In many situations, our biology and our society appear to be in serious opposition, and the damaging consequences to our health under these circumstances are increasingly recognised. The seasons dominate the lives of non-equatorial species, and until recently, they also had a marked influence on much of human biology. Despite human isolation from seasonal changes in temperature, food and photoperiod in the industrialised nations, the seasons still appear to have a small, but significant, impact upon when individuals are born and many aspects of health. The seasonal changes that modulate our biology, and how these factors might interact with the social and metabolic status of the individual to drive seasonal effects, are still poorly understood. Lunar cycles had, and continue to have, an influence upon human culture, though despite a persistent belief that our mental health and other behaviours are modulated by the phase of the moon, there is no solid evidence that human biology is in any way regulated by the lunar cycle.
Address Circadian and Visual Neuroscience, Nuffield Laboratory of Ophthalmology, University of Oxford, Levels 5 & 6 West Wing, John Radcliffe Hospital, Headley Way, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK. russell.foster@eye.ox.ac.uk
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ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:18786384 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 752
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Author Romeo, S. et al.
Title Bright light exposure reduces TH-positive dopamine neurons: implications of light pollution in Parkinson's disease epidemiology Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Scientific Reports Abbreviated Journal
Volume 3 Issue Pages
Keywords Animals; Parkinson's disease; Cell death in the nervous system; Neural ageing; Risk factors
Abstract This study explores the effect of continuous exposure to bright light on neuromelanin formation and dopamine neuron survival in the substantia nigra. Twenty-one days after birth, Sprague–Dawley albino rats were divided into groups and raised under different conditions of light exposure. At the end of the irradiation period, rats were sacrificed and assayed for neuromelanin formation and number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neurons in the substantia nigra. The rats exposed to bright light for 20 days or 90 days showed a relatively greater number of neuromelanin-positive neurons. Surprisingly, TH-positive neurons decreased progressively in the substantia nigra reaching a significant 29% reduction after 90 days of continuous bright light exposure. This decrease was paralleled by a diminution of dopamine and its metabolite in the striatum. Remarkably, in preliminary analysis that accounted for population density, the age and race adjusted Parkinson's disease prevalence significantly correlated with average satellite-observed sky light pollution.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 382
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