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Author Nordt, A.; Klenke, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages e71476  
  Keywords Animals; Automobiles; Cities; Ecosystem; Germany; Humans; Light; Male; Noise; Photoperiod; Sleep; Songbirds/*physiology; Urban Population; *Vocalization, Animal; dawn chorus; morning chorus  
  Abstract Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.  
  Address Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Conservation Biology, Leipzig, Germany. anja.nordt@ufz.de  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23940759; PMCID:PMC3737108 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 43  
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Author Dominoni, D.M.; Helm, B.; Lehmann, M.; Dowse, H.B.; Partecke, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Clocks for the city: circadian differences between forest and city songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences / The Royal Society Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume 280 Issue 1763 Pages 20130593  
  Keywords Animals; Circadian Clocks/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Cities; *Ecosystem; Light; Male; Songbirds/classification/*physiology; Trees; Urbanization; birds; chronotype; circadian rhythms; light at night; radio-telemetry; urbanization  
  Abstract To keep pace with progressing urbanization organisms must cope with extensive habitat change. Anthropogenic light and noise have modified differences between day and night, and may thereby interfere with circadian clocks. Urbanized species, such as birds, are known to advance their activity to early morning and night hours. We hypothesized that such modified activity patterns are reflected by properties of the endogenous circadian clock. Using automatic radio-telemetry, we tested this idea by comparing activity patterns of free-living forest and city European blackbirds (Turdus merula). We then recaptured the same individuals and recorded their activity under constant conditions. City birds started their activity earlier and had faster but less robust circadian oscillation of locomotor activity than forest conspecifics. Circadian period length predicted start of activity in the field, and this relationship was mainly explained by fast-paced and early-rising city birds. Although based on only two populations, our findings point to links between city life, chronotype and circadian phenotype in songbirds, and potentially in other organisms that colonize urban habitats, and highlight that urban environments can significantly modify biologically important rhythms in wild organisms.  
  Address Department of Migration and Immuno-ecology, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Radolfzell 78479, Germany. ddominoni@orn.mpg.de  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23740778; PMCID:PMC3774226 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 42  
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Author Schoech, S.J.; Bowman, R.; Hahn, T.P.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Bridge, E.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of low levels of light at night upon the endocrine physiology of western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol  
  Volume 319 Issue 9 Pages 527-538  
  Keywords Animals; Corticosterone/blood; Ecosystem; Female; *Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Passeriformes/*physiology; *Photoperiod; Reproduction/*physiology; Testosterone/blood  
  Abstract Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in the suburbs breed earlier than jays in native habitat. Amongst the possible factors that influence this advance (e.g., food availability, microclimate, predator regime, etc.), is exposure to artificial lights at night (LAN). LAN could stimulate the reproductive axis of the suburban jays. Alternatively, LAN could inhibit pineal melatonin (MEL), thus removing its inhibitory influence on the reproductive axis. Because Florida scrub-jays are a threatened species, we used western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) to investigate the effects of LAN upon reproductive hormones and melatonin. Jays were held under conditions in which the dark-phase of the light:dark cycle was without illumination and then under low levels of LAN. Under both conditions, birds were exposed first to short-days (9.5L:14.5D) that were gradually increased to long-days (14.5L:9.5D). At various times, blood samples were collected during the light part of the cycle to measure reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, LH; testosterone, T; and estradiol, E2 ). Similarly, samples to assess melatonin were collected during the dark. In males, LAN caused a depression in LH levels and levels were approximately 4x greater under long- than short-days. In females, there was no effect of LAN or photoperiod upon LH. LAN resulted in depressed T levels in females, although there was no effect on T in males. E2 levels in both sexes were lower under LAN than under an unlighted dark-phase. Paradoxically, MEL was higher in jays under LAN, and under long-days. MEL did not differ by sex. LAN disrupted the extraordinarily strong correlation between T and E2 that existed under unlighted nocturnal conditions. Overall, our findings fail to support the hypothesis that LAN stimulates the reproductive axis. Rather, the data demonstrate that LAN tends to inhibit reproductive hormone secretion, although not in a consistent fashion between the sexes.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-5223 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23970442 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 37  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Hölker, F.; Wolter, C.; Perkin, E.K.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution as a biodiversity threat Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Trends in Ecology & Evolution Abbreviated Journal Trends Ecol Evol  
  Volume 25 Issue 12 Pages 681-682  
  Keywords *Biodiversity; Biological Clocks; Biological Evolution; Ecosystem; *Environmental Monitoring; *Environmental Pollutants; Light/*adverse effects  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0169-5347 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21035893 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 36  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Richardson, J.S.; Sadler, J.P.; Wolter, C.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Ecosphere Abbreviated Journal Ecosphere  
  Volume 2 Issue 11 Pages art122  
  Keywords aquatic invertebrates; artificial illumination; ecosystems; fish; multiple stressors; riparian; streams; urbanization  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is gaining attention for its potential to alter ecosystems. Although terrestrial ecologists have observed that artificial light at night may disrupt migrations, feeding, and other important ecological functions, we know comparatively little about the role artificial light might play in disrupting freshwater and riparian ecosystems. We identify and discuss four future research domains that artificial light may influence in freshwater and associated terrestrial ecosystems, with an emphasis on running waters: (1) dispersal, (2) population genetics and evolution, (3) ecosystem functioning, and (4) potential interactions with other stressors. We suggest that future experimental and modeling studies should focus on the effects of different spectral emissions by different light sources on freshwater organisms, the spatial and temporal scale over which artificial light acts, and the magnitude of change in light at night across the landscape relative to the distribution of running and standing waters. Improved knowledge about the effects of artificial light on freshwater ecosystems will inform policy decisions about changes to artificial light spectral emissions and distributions.

Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/ES11-00241.1
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2150-8925 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial (down) 24  
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