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Author Stone, E.L.; Wakefield, A.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impacts of new street light technologies: experimentally testing the effects on bats of changing from low-pressure sodium to white metal halide Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci  
  Volume 370 Issue Pages 20140127  
  Keywords Lighting; Animals; bats; mammals; Pipistrellus pipistrellus; Pipistrellus pygmaeus; Nyctalus; Eptesicus; artificial lighting; ecosystem-level effects; Philips CosmoPolis lights; light pollution  
  Abstract Artificial light at night is a major feature of anthropogenic global change and is increasingly recognized as affecting biodiversity, often negatively. On a global scale, newer technology white lights are replacing orange sodium lights to reduce energy waste. In 2009, Cornwall County Council (UK) commenced replacement of existing low-pressure sodium (LPS) high intensity discharge (HID) street lights with new Phillips CosmoPolis white ceramic metal halide street lights to reduce energy wastage. This changeover provided a unique collaborative opportunity to implement a before-after-control-impact field experiment to investigate the ecological effects of newly installed broad spectrum light technologies. Activity of the bat species Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus and Nyctalus/Eptesicus spp. was significantly higher at metal halide than LPS lights, as found in other studies of bat activity at old technology (i.e. mercurLighting; artificial lighting; ecosystem-level effects; Philips CosmoPolis lights; light pollutiony vapour) white light types. No significant difference was found in feeding attempts per bat pass between light types, though more passes overall were recorded at metal halide lights. Species-specific attraction of bats to the metal halide lights could have cascading effects at lower trophic levels. We highlight the need for further research on possible ecosystem-level effects of light technologies before they are installed on a wide scale.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Life Sciences Building, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK; emma.stone@bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1121  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Coleman, M.; Griffith, K.M.; Jenkins, S.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biology Letters  
  Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 20150080-20150080  
  Keywords Ecology; artificial light pollution; marine ecosystems; epifaunal communities; larval recruitment; anthropogenic disturbance; light-emitting diodes; LED; biodiversity; artificial light at night; biology  
  Abstract Marine benthic communities face multiple anthropogenic pressures that compromise the future of some of the most biodiverse and functionally important ecosystems in the world. Yet one of the pressures these ecosystems face, night-time lighting, remains unstudied. Light is an important cue in guiding the settlement of invertebrate larvae, and altering natural regimes of nocturnal illumination could modify patterns of recruitment among sessile epifauna. We present the first evidence of night-time lighting changing the composition of temperate epifaunal marine invertebrate communities. Illuminating settlement surfaces with white light-emitting diode lighting at night, to levels experienced by these communities locally, both inhibited and encouraged the colonization of 39% of the taxa analysed, including three sessile and two mobile species. Our results indicate that ecological light pollution from coastal development, shipping and offshore infrastructure could be changing the composition of marine epifaunal communities.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1744-9561 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1162  
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Author Davies, T.W.; Duffy, J.P.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Stemming the Tide of Light Pollution Encroaching into Marine Protected Areas: Light pollution in marine protected areas Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Conservation Letters Abbreviated Journal Conservation Lett.  
  Volume 9 Issue 3 Pages 164–171  
  Keywords Animals; Anthropogenic disturbance; artificial light; marine ecosystems; marine protected areas; pollution  
  Abstract Many marine ecosystems are shaped by regimes of natural light guiding the behavior of their constituent species. As evidenced from terrestrial systems, the global introduction of nighttime lighting is likely influencing these behaviors, restructuring marine ecosystems, and compromising the services they provide. Yet the extent to which marine habitats are exposed to artificial light at night is unknown. We quantified nighttime artificial light across the world's network of marine protected areas (MPAs). Artificial light is widespread and increasing in a large percentage of MPAs. While increases are more common among MPAs associated with human activity, artificial light is encroaching into a large proportion of even those marine habitats protected with the strongest legislative designations. Given the current lack of statutory tools, we propose that allocating “Marine Dark Sky Park” status to MPAs will help incentivize responsible authorities to hold back the advance of artificial light.  
  Address University of Exeter, Penryn Campus, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, UK. Thomas.Davies(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1755263X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1222  
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Author Holzhauer S.I.J.; Franke S.; Kyba C.C.M.; Manfrin A.; Klenke R.; Voigt C.C.; Lewanzik D.; Oehlert M.; Monaghan M.T.; Schneider S.; Heller S.; Kuechly H.; Brüning A.; Honnen A.-C.; Hölker F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Out of the Dark: Establishing a Large-Scale Field Experiment to Assess the Effects of Artificial Light at Night on Species and Food Webs Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sustainability Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue 11 Pages 15593-15616  
  Keywords ALAN; artificial light at night; ecosystems; freshwater; light pollution; loss of the night; photometric characterization; riparian; Verlust der Nacht  
  Abstract Artificial light at night (ALAN) is one of the most obvious hallmarks of human presence in an ecosystem. The rapidly increasing use of artificial light has fundamentally transformed nightscapes throughout most of the globe, although little is known about how ALAN impacts the biodiversity and food webs of illuminated ecosystems. We developed a large-scale experimental infrastructure to study the effects of ALAN on a light-naïve, natural riparian (i.e., terrestrial-aquatic) ecosystem. Twelve street lights (20 m apart) arranged in three rows parallel to an agricultural drainage ditch were installed on each of two sites located in a grassland ecosystem in northern Germany. A range of biotic, abiotic, and photometric data are collected regularly to study the short- and long-term effects of ALAN on behavior, species interactions, physiology, and species composition of communities. Here we describe the infrastructure setup and data collection methods, and characterize the study area including photometric measurements. None of the measured parameters differed significantly between sites in the period before illumination. Results of one short-term experiment, carried out with one site illuminated and the other acting as a control, demonstrate the attraction of ALAN by the immense and immediate increase of insect catches at the lit street lights. The experimental setup provides a unique platform for carrying out interdisciplinary research on sustainable lighting.  
  Address Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB), Müggelseedamm 301/310, 12587 Berlin, Germany; holzhauer(at)igb-berlin.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher MDPI Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1305  
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Author Gaston, K.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nighttime Ecology: The “Nocturnal Problem” Revisited Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication The American Naturalist Abbreviated Journal The American Naturalist  
  Volume 193 Issue 4 Pages 481-502  
  Keywords Ecology; activity; diel; ecosystems; macroecology; nighttime; nocturnal; time partitioning  
  Abstract The existence of a synthetic program of research on what was then termed the “nocturnal problem” and that we might now call “nighttime ecology” was declared more than 70 years ago. In reality, this failed to materialize, arguably as a consequence of practical challenges in studying organisms at night and instead concentrating on the existence of circadian rhythms, the mechanisms that give rise to them, and their consequences. This legacy is evident to this day, with consideration of the ecology of the nighttime markedly underrepresented in ecological research and literature. However, several factors suggest that it would be timely to revive the vision of a comprehensive research program in nighttime ecology. These include (i) that the study of the ecology of the night is being revolutionized by new and improved technologies; (ii) suggestions that, far from being a minor component of biodiversity, a high proportion of animal species are active at night; (iii) that fundamental questions about differences and connections between the ecology of the daytime and the nighttime remain largely unanswered; and (iv) that the nighttime environment is coming under severe anthropogenic pressure. In this article, I seek to reestablish nighttime ecology as a synthetic program of research, highlighting key focal topics and questions and providing an overview of the current state of understanding and developments.  
  Address Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall TR10 9FE, United Kingdom; and Wissenschaftskolleg zu Berlin, Institute for Advanced Study, Wallotstrasse 19, 14193 Berlin, Germany; k.j.gaston(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher University of Chicago Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language (up) English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0003-0147 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2254  
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