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Author Bedrosian, T.A.; Vaughn, C.A.; Galan, A.; Daye, G.; Weil, Z.M.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Nocturnal light exposure impairs affective responses in a wavelength-dependent manner Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication The Journal of Neuroscience : the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal J Neurosci  
  Volume 33 Issue 32 Pages 13081-13087  
  Keywords Analysis of Variance; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Female; Food Deprivation/physiology; Food Preferences/physiology/radiation effects; Fourier Analysis; Gene Expression Regulation/radiation effects; Hippocampus/pathology/radiation effects; Immobility Response, Tonic/radiation effects; Light/*adverse effects; Mood Disorders/*etiology/pathology; Motor Activity/physiology/radiation effects; Phodopus; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos/metabolism; Social Behavior; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/metabolism; Time Factors  
  Abstract Life on earth is entrained to a 24 h solar cycle that synchronizes circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior; light is the most potent entraining cue. In mammals, light is detected by (1) rods and cones, which mediate visual function, and (2) intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which primarily project to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus to regulate circadian rhythms. Recent evidence, however, demonstrates that ipRGCs also project to limbic brain regions, suggesting that, through this pathway, light may have a role in cognition and mood. Therefore, it follows that unnatural exposure to light may have negative consequences for mood or behavior. Modern environmental lighting conditions have led to excessive exposure to light at night (LAN), and particularly to blue wavelength lights. We hypothesized that nocturnal light exposure (i.e., dim LAN) would induce depressive responses and alter neuronal structure in hamsters (Phodopus sungorus). If this effect is mediated by ipRGCs, which have reduced sensitivity to red wavelength light, then we predicted that red LAN would have limited effects on brain and behavior compared with shorter wavelengths. Additionally, red LAN would not induce c-Fos activation in the SCN. Our results demonstrate that exposure to LAN influences behavior and neuronal plasticity and that this effect is likely mediated by ipRGCs. Modern sources of LAN that contain blue wavelengths may be particularly disruptive to the circadian system, potentially contributing to altered mood regulation.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, USA. Bedrosian.2@osu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0270-6474 ISBN Medium  
  Area (up) Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23926261 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 27  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Schoech, S.J.; Bowman, R.; Hahn, T.P.; Goymann, W.; Schwabl, I.; Bridge, E.S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of low levels of light at night upon the endocrine physiology of western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Journal of Experimental Zoology. Part A, Ecological Genetics and Physiology Abbreviated Journal J Exp Zool A Ecol Genet Physiol  
  Volume 319 Issue 9 Pages 527-538  
  Keywords Animals; Corticosterone/blood; Ecosystem; Female; *Light; Male; Melatonin/blood; Passeriformes/*physiology; *Photoperiod; Reproduction/*physiology; Testosterone/blood  
  Abstract Florida scrub-jays (Aphelocoma coerulescens) in the suburbs breed earlier than jays in native habitat. Amongst the possible factors that influence this advance (e.g., food availability, microclimate, predator regime, etc.), is exposure to artificial lights at night (LAN). LAN could stimulate the reproductive axis of the suburban jays. Alternatively, LAN could inhibit pineal melatonin (MEL), thus removing its inhibitory influence on the reproductive axis. Because Florida scrub-jays are a threatened species, we used western scrub-jays (Aphelocoma californica) to investigate the effects of LAN upon reproductive hormones and melatonin. Jays were held under conditions in which the dark-phase of the light:dark cycle was without illumination and then under low levels of LAN. Under both conditions, birds were exposed first to short-days (9.5L:14.5D) that were gradually increased to long-days (14.5L:9.5D). At various times, blood samples were collected during the light part of the cycle to measure reproductive hormones (luteinizing hormone, LH; testosterone, T; and estradiol, E2 ). Similarly, samples to assess melatonin were collected during the dark. In males, LAN caused a depression in LH levels and levels were approximately 4x greater under long- than short-days. In females, there was no effect of LAN or photoperiod upon LH. LAN resulted in depressed T levels in females, although there was no effect on T in males. E2 levels in both sexes were lower under LAN than under an unlighted dark-phase. Paradoxically, MEL was higher in jays under LAN, and under long-days. MEL did not differ by sex. LAN disrupted the extraordinarily strong correlation between T and E2 that existed under unlighted nocturnal conditions. Overall, our findings fail to support the hypothesis that LAN stimulates the reproductive axis. Rather, the data demonstrate that LAN tends to inhibit reproductive hormone secretion, although not in a consistent fashion between the sexes.  
  Address Department of Biological Sciences, University of Memphis, Memphis, Tennessee  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-5223 ISBN Medium  
  Area (up) Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23970442 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 37  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Titulaer, M.; Spoelstra, K.; Lange, C.Y.M.J.G.; Visser, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Activity patterns during food provisioning are affected by artificial light in free living great tits (Parus major) Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 7 Issue 5 Pages e37377  
  Keywords Animals; Appetitive Behavior/*physiology; Feeding Behavior/*physiology; Female; Light/*adverse effects; Male; Nesting Behavior/*physiology; Netherlands; Passeriformes/*physiology; Photoperiod; Sex Factors  
  Abstract Artificial light may have severe ecological consequences but there is limited experimental work to assess these consequences. We carried out an experimental study on a wild population of great tits (Parus major) to assess the impact of light pollution on daily activity patterns during the chick provisioning period. Pairs that were provided with a small light outside their nest box did not alter the onset, cessation or duration of their working day. There was however a clear effect of artificial light on the feeding rate in the second half of the nestling period: when provided with artificial light females increased their feeding rate when the nestlings were between 9 and 16 days old. Artificial light is hypothesised to have affected the perceived photoperiod of either the parents or the offspring which in turn led to increased parental care. This may have negative fitness consequences for the parents, and light pollution may thus create an ecological trap for breeding birds.  
  Address Department of Animal Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, Wageningen, The Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area (up) Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22624023; PMCID:PMC3356403 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 45  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kempenaers, B.; Borgstrom, P.; Loes, P.; Schlicht, E.; Valcu, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 20 Issue 19 Pages 1735-1739  
  Keywords Animals; Environmental Pollution; Female; Light; *Lighting; Male; *Reproduction; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Time Factors; *Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.  
  Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany. b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area (up) Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20850324 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 51  
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Author Rockhill, A.P.; DePerno, C.S.; Powell, R.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effect of illumination and time of day on movements of bobcats (Lynx rufus) Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 7 Pages e69213  
  Keywords Animals; Female; *Lighting; Lynx/*physiology; Male; Moon; Movement/*physiology; North Carolina; Time Factors; Wetlands  
  Abstract Understanding behavioral changes of prey and predators based on lunar illumination provides insight into important life history, behavioral ecology, and survival information. The objectives of this research were to determine if bobcat movement rates differed by period of day (dark, moon, crepuscular, day), lunar illumination (<10%, 10 – <50%, 50 – <90%, >90%), and moon phase (new, full). Bobcats had high movement rates during crepuscular and day periods and low movement rates during dark periods with highest nighttime rates at 10-<50% lunar illumination. Bobcats had highest movement rates during daytime when nighttime illumination was low (new moon) and higher movement rates during nighttime when lunar illumination was high (full moon). The behaviors we observed are consistent with prey availability being affected by light level and by limited vision by bobcats during darkness.  
  Address Fisheries, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. aimee_rockhill@ncsu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area (up) Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23861963; PMCID:PMC3704646 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 84  
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