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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Artificial lighting in the industrialized world: circadian disruption and breast cancer Type Journal Article
Year 2006 Publication Cancer Causes & Control : CCC Abbreviated Journal Cancer Causes Control
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 501-507
Keywords Human Health; Alcohol Drinking/adverse effects; Animals; Breast Neoplasms/*etiology; Chronobiology Disorders/*etiology/physiopathology; Circadian Rhythm; Developing Countries; Female; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Melatonin/metabolism; Risk Factors; Suprachiasmatic Nucleus/physiopathology
Abstract Breast cancer risk is high in industrialized societies, and increases as developing countries become more Westernized. The reasons are poorly understood. One possibility is circadian disruption from aspects of modern life, in particular the increasing use of electric power to light the night, and provide a sun-free environment during the day inside buildings. Circadian disruption could lead to alterations in melatonin production and in changing the molecular time of the circadian clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). There is evidence in humans that the endogenous melatonin rhythm is stronger for persons in a bright-day environment than in a dim-day environment; and the light intensity necessary to suppress melatonin at night continues to decline as new experiments are done. Melatonin suppression can increase breast tumorigenesis in experimental animals, and altering the endogenous clock mechanism may have downstream effects on cell cycle regulatory genes pertinent to breast tissue development and susceptibility. Therefore, maintenance of a solar day-aligned circadian rhythm in endogenous melatonin and in clock gene expression by exposure to a bright day and a dark night, may be a worthy goal. However, exogenous administration of melatonin in an attempt to achieve this goal may have an untoward effect given that pharmacologic dosing with melatonin has been shown to phase shift humans depending on the time of day it's given. Exogenous melatonin may therefore contribute to circadian disruption rather than alleviate it.
Address University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@neuron.uchc.edu
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ISSN (up) 0957-5243 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:16596303 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 818
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Author Kempenaers, B.; Borgstrom, P.; Loes, P.; Schlicht, E.; Valcu, M.
Title Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 20 Issue 19 Pages 1735-1739
Keywords Animals; Environmental Pollution; Female; Light; *Lighting; Male; *Reproduction; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Songbirds/*physiology; Time Factors; *Vocalization, Animal
Abstract Associated with a continued global increase in urbanization, anthropogenic light pollution is an important problem. However, our understanding of the ecological consequences of light pollution is limited. We investigated effects of artificial night lighting on dawn song in five common forest-breeding songbirds. In four species, males near street lights started singing significantly earlier at dawn than males elsewhere in the forest, and this effect was stronger in naturally earlier-singing species. We compared reproductive behavior of blue tits breeding in edge territories with and without street lights to that of blue tits breeding in central territories over a 7 year period. Under the influence of street lights, females started egg laying on average 1.5 days earlier. Males occupying edge territories with street lights were twice as successful in obtaining extra-pair mates than their close neighbors or than males occupying central forest territories. Artificial night lighting affected both age classes but had a stronger effect on yearling males. Our findings indicate that light pollution has substantial effects on the timing of reproductive behavior and on individual mating patterns. It may have important evolutionary consequences by changing the information embedded in previously reliable quality-indicator traits.
Address Department of Behavioural Ecology and Evolutionary Genetics, Max Planck Institute for Ornithology, Eberhard-Gwinner-Strasse, 82319 Seewiesen, Germany. b.kempenaers@orn.mpg.de
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ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20850324 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 51
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Author Cajochen, C.; Altanay-Ekici, S.; Munch, M.; Frey, S.; Knoblauch, V.; Wirz-Justice, A.
Title Evidence that the lunar cycle influences human sleep Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 15 Pages 1485-1488
Keywords Adult; Aged; Cross-Sectional Studies; Electroencephalography; Female; Humans; Hydrocortisone/analysis/metabolism; Male; Melatonin/analysis/metabolism; Middle Aged; Moon; Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation; Periodicity; Saliva/metabolism; Sleep/*physiology; Sleep Stages/physiology; Young Adult
Abstract Endogenous rhythms of circalunar periodicity ( approximately 29.5 days) and their underlying molecular and genetic basis have been demonstrated in a number of marine species [1, 2]. In contrast, there is a great deal of folklore but no consistent association of moon cycles with human physiology and behavior [3]. Here we show that subjective and objective measures of sleep vary according to lunar phase and thus may reflect circalunar rhythmicity in humans. To exclude confounders such as increased light at night or the potential bias in perception regarding a lunar influence on sleep, we retrospectively analyzed sleep structure, electroencephalographic activity during non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep, and secretion of the hormones melatonin and cortisol found under stringently controlled laboratory conditions in a cross-sectional setting. At no point during and after the study were volunteers or investigators aware of the a posteriori analysis relative to lunar phase. We found that around full moon, electroencephalogram (EEG) delta activity during NREM sleep, an indicator of deep sleep, decreased by 30%, time to fall asleep increased by 5 min, and EEG-assessed total sleep duration was reduced by 20 min. These changes were associated with a decrease in subjective sleep quality and diminished endogenous melatonin levels. This is the first reliable evidence that a lunar rhythm can modulate sleep structure in humans when measured under the highly controlled conditions of a circadian laboratory study protocol without time cues.
Address Centre for Chronobiology, Psychiatric Hospital of the University of Basel, 4012 Basel, Switzerland. christian.cajochen@upkbs.ch
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ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23891110 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 140
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Author Kantermann, T.
Title Circadian biology: sleep-styles shaped by light-styles Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages R689-90
Keywords Human Health; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight
Abstract Light and darkness are the main time cues synchronising all biological clocks to the external environment. This little understood evolutionary phenomenon is called circadian entrainment. A new study illuminates our understanding of how modern light- and lifestyles compromise circadian entrainment and impact our biological clocks.
Address Chronobiology – Centre for Behaviour and Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. thomas@kantermann.de
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ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23968925 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 501
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Author Wright, K.P.J.; McHill, A.W.; Birks, B.R.; Griffin, B.R.; Rusterholz, T.; Chinoy, E.D.
Title Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages 1554-1558
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight; Young Adult; Circadian Rhythm
Abstract The electric light is one of the most important human inventions. Sleep and other daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, however, evolved in the natural light-dark cycle [1], and electrical lighting is thought to have disrupted these rhythms. Yet how much the age of electrical lighting has altered the human circadian clock is unknown. Here we show that electrical lighting and the constructed environment is associated with reduced exposure to sunlight during the day, increased light exposure after sunset, and a delayed timing of the circadian clock as compared to a summer natural 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle camping. Furthermore, we find that after exposure to only natural light, the internal circadian clock synchronizes to solar time such that the beginning of the internal biological night occurs at sunset and the end of the internal biological night occurs before wake time just after sunrise. In addition, we find that later chronotypes show larger circadian advances when exposed to only natural light, making the timing of their internal clocks in relation to the light-dark cycle more similar to earlier chronotypes. These findings have important implications for understanding how modern light exposure patterns contribute to late sleep schedules and may disrupt sleep and circadian clocks.
Address Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA. kenneth.wright@colorado.edu
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN (up) 0960-9822 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23910656; PMCID:PMC4020279 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 505
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