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Author Mottram, V.; Middleton, B.; Williams, P.; Arendt, J.
Title The impact of bright artificial white and 'blue-enriched' light on sleep and circadian phase during the polar winter Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Sleep Research Abbreviated Journal J Sleep Res
Volume 20 Issue 1 Pt 2 Pages 154-161
Keywords Adult; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; *Cold Climate; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Medical Records; Questionnaires; Sleep/*physiology; Time Factors; blue light
Abstract Delayed sleep phase (and sometimes free-run) is common in the Antarctic winter (no natural sunlight) and optimizing the artificial light conditions is desirable. This project evaluated sleep when using 17,000 K blue-enriched lamps compared with standard white lamps (5000 K) for personal and communal illumination. Base personnel, 10 males, five females, 32.5+/-8 years took part in the study. From 24 March to 21 September 2006 light exposure alternated between 4-5-week periods of standard white (5000 K) and blue-enriched lamps (17,000 K), with a 3-week control before and after extra light. Sleep and light exposure were assessed by actigraphy and sleep diaries. General health (RAND 36-item questionnaire) and circadian phase (urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin rhythm) were evaluated at the end of each light condition. Direct comparison (rmanova) of blue-enriched light with white light showed that sleep onset was earlier by 19 min (P=0.022), and sleep latency tended to be shorter by 4 min (P=0.065) with blue-enriched light. Analysing all light conditions, control, blue and white, again provided evidence for greater efficiency of blue-enriched light compared with white (P<0.05), but with the best sleep timing, duration, efficiency and quality in control natural light conditions. Circadian phase was earlier on average in midwinter blue compared with midwinter white light by 45 min (P<0.05). Light condition had no influence on general health. We conclude that the use of blue-enriched light had some beneficial effects, notably earlier sleep, compared with standard white light during the polar winter.
Address British Antarctic Survey Medical Unit, Derriford Hospital, Plymouth, UK
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0962-1105 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20723022 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 348
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Author Kantermann, T.
Title Circadian biology: sleep-styles shaped by light-styles Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages R689-90
Keywords Human Health; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight
Abstract Light and darkness are the main time cues synchronising all biological clocks to the external environment. This little understood evolutionary phenomenon is called circadian entrainment. A new study illuminates our understanding of how modern light- and lifestyles compromise circadian entrainment and impact our biological clocks.
Address Chronobiology – Centre for Behaviour and Neurosciences, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 7, 9747 AG Groningen, The Netherlands. thomas@kantermann.de
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23968925 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 501
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.X.; Korkmaz, A.; Rosales-Corral, S.A.
Title Melatonin and stable circadian rhythms optimize maternal, placental and fetal physiology Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Human Reproduction Update Abbreviated Journal Hum Reprod Update
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 293-307
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Antioxidants/physiology; Biological Clocks/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Fetus/*physiology; Humans; Mammals; Melatonin/biosynthesis/*physiology; Mice; Oxidative Stress/physiology; Parturition/physiology; Placenta/metabolism/*physiology; Pre-Eclampsia/etiology/metabolism; Pregnancy; Uterus/metabolism; circadian rhythms; fetus; melatonin; placenta; pre-eclampsia
Abstract BACKGROUND: Research within the last decade has shown melatonin to have previously-unsuspected beneficial actions on the peripheral reproductive organs. Likewise, numerous investigations have documented that stable circadian rhythms are also helpful in maintaining reproductive health. The relationship of melatonin and circadian rhythmicity to maternal and fetal health is summarized in this review. METHODS: Databases were searched for the related published English literature up to 15 May 2013. The search terms used in various combinations included melatonin, circadian rhythms, biological clock, suprachiasmatic nucleus, ovary, pregnancy, uterus, placenta, fetus, pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, ischemia-reperfusion, chronodisruption, antioxidants, oxidative stress and free radicals. The results of the studies uncovered are summarized herein. RESULTS: Both melatonin and circadian rhythms impact reproduction, especially during pregnancy. Melatonin is a multifaceted molecule with direct free radical scavenging and indirect antioxidant activities. Melatonin is produced in both the ovary and in the placenta where it protects against molecular mutilation and cellular dysfunction arising from oxidative/nitrosative stress. The placenta, in particular, is often a site of excessive free radical generation due to less than optimal adhesion to the uterine wall, which leads to either persistent hypoxia or intermittent hypoxia and reoxygenation, processes that cause massive free radical generation and organ dysfunction. This may contribute to pre-eclampsia and other disorders which often complicate pregnancy. Melatonin has ameliorated free radical damage to the placenta and to the fetus in experiments using non-human mammals. Likewise, the maintenance of a regular maternal light/dark and sleep/wake cycle is important to stabilize circadian rhythms generated by the maternal central circadian pacemaker, the suprachiasmatic nuclei. Optimal circadian rhythmicity in the mother is important since her circadian clock, either directly or indirectly via the melatonin rhythm, programs the developing master oscillator of the fetus. Experimental studies have shown that disturbed maternal circadian rhythms, referred to as chronodisruption, and perturbed melatonin cycles have negative consequences for the maturing fetal oscillators, which may lead to psychological and behavioral problems in the newborn. To optimize regular circadian rhythms and prevent disturbances of the melatonin cycle during pregnancy, shift work and bright light exposure at night should be avoided, especially during the last trimester of pregnancy. Finally, melatonin synergizes with oxytocin to promote delivery of the fetus. Since blood melatonin levels are normally highest during the dark period, the propensity of childbirth to occur at night may relate to the high levels of melatonin at this time which work in concert with oxytocin to enhance the strength of uterine contractions. CONCLUSIONS: A number of conclusions naturally evolve from the data summarized in this review: (i) melatonin, of both pineal and placental origin, has essential functions in fetal maturation and placenta/uterine homeostasis; (ii) circadian clock genes, which are components of all cells including those in the peripheral reproductive organs, have important roles in reproductive and organismal (fetal and maternal) physiology; (iii) due to the potent antioxidant actions of melatonin, coupled with its virtual absence of toxicity, this indoleamine may have utility in the treatment of pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, placental and fetal ischemia/reperfusion, etc. (iv) the propensity for parturition to occur at night may relate to the synergism between the nocturnal increase in melatonin and oxytocin.
Address Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio, TX, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1355-4786 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24132226 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 504
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Author Wright, K.P.J.; McHill, A.W.; Birks, B.R.; Griffin, B.R.; Rusterholz, T.; Chinoy, E.D.
Title Entrainment of the human circadian clock to the natural light-dark cycle Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol
Volume 23 Issue 16 Pages 1554-1558
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Circadian Clocks/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Lighting; Male; *Photoperiod; *Sunlight; Young Adult; Circadian Rhythm
Abstract The electric light is one of the most important human inventions. Sleep and other daily rhythms in physiology and behavior, however, evolved in the natural light-dark cycle [1], and electrical lighting is thought to have disrupted these rhythms. Yet how much the age of electrical lighting has altered the human circadian clock is unknown. Here we show that electrical lighting and the constructed environment is associated with reduced exposure to sunlight during the day, increased light exposure after sunset, and a delayed timing of the circadian clock as compared to a summer natural 14 hr 40 min:9 hr 20 min light-dark cycle camping. Furthermore, we find that after exposure to only natural light, the internal circadian clock synchronizes to solar time such that the beginning of the internal biological night occurs at sunset and the end of the internal biological night occurs before wake time just after sunrise. In addition, we find that later chronotypes show larger circadian advances when exposed to only natural light, making the timing of their internal clocks in relation to the light-dark cycle more similar to earlier chronotypes. These findings have important implications for understanding how modern light exposure patterns contribute to late sleep schedules and may disrupt sleep and circadian clocks.
Address Sleep and Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO 80309-0354, USA. kenneth.wright@colorado.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:23910656; PMCID:PMC4020279 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 505
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Author Boivin, D.B.; Boudreau, P.; Tremblay, G.M.
Title Phototherapy and orange-tinted goggles for night-shift adaptation of police officers on patrol Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 29 Issue 5 Pages 629-640
Keywords Human Health; Adaptation, Physiological/*physiology; Adult; Attention/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Color; Darkness; *Eye Protective Devices/adverse effects; Female; Humans; Light; Male; Melatonin/analogs & derivatives/metabolism/urine; Phototherapy/*adverse effects; *Police; Psychomotor Performance/*physiology; Saliva/chemistry; Sleep/physiology; Work Schedule Tolerance/*physiology
Abstract The aim of the present combined field and laboratory study was to assess circadian entrainment in two groups of police officers working seven consecutive 8/8.5-h night shifts as part of a rotating schedule. Eight full-time police officers on patrol (mean age +/- SD: 29.8 +/- 6.5 yrs) were provided an intervention consisting of intermittent exposure to wide-spectrum bright light at night, orange-tinted goggles at sunrise, and maintenance of a regular sleep/darkness episode in the day. Orange-tinted goggles have been shown to block the melatonin-suppressing effect of light significantly more than neutral gray density goggles. Nine control group police officers (mean age +/- SD: 30.3 +/- 4.1 yrs) working the same schedule were enrolled. Police officers were studied before, after (in the laboratory), and during (ambulatory) a series of seven consecutive nights. Urine samples were collected at wake time and bedtime throughout the week of night work and during laboratory visits (1 x /3 h) preceding and following the work week to measure urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (UaMT6s) excretion rate. Subjective alertness was assessed at the start, middle, and end of night shifts. A 10-min psychomotor vigilance task was performed at the start and end of each shift. Both laboratory visits consisted of two 8-h sleep episodes based on the prior schedule. Saliva samples were collected 2 x /h during waking episodes to assay their melatonin content. Subjective alertness (3 x /h) and performance (1 x /2 h) were assessed during wake periods in the laboratory. A mixed linear model was used to analyze the progression of UaMt6s excreted during daytime sleep episodes at home, as well as psychomotor performance and subjective alertness during night shifts. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) (factors: laboratory visit and group) were used to compare peak salivary melatonin and UaMT6s excretion rate in the laboratory. In both groups of police officers, the excretion rate of UaMT6s at home was higher during daytime sleep episodes at the end compared to the start of the work week (p < .001). This rate increased significantly more in the intervention than control group (p = .032). A significant phase delay of salivary melatonin was observed in both groups at the end of study (p = .009), although no significant between-group difference was reached. Reaction speed dropped, and subjective alertness decreased throughout the night shift in both groups (p < .001). Reaction speed decreased throughout the work week in the control group (p </= .021), whereas no difference was observed in the intervention group. Median reaction time was increased as of the 5th and 6th nights compared to the 2nd night in controls (p </= .003), whereas it remained stable in the intervention group. These observations indicate better physiological adaptation in the intervention group compared to the controls.
Address Centre for Study and Treatment of Circadian Rhythms , Douglas Mental Health University Institute, Department of Psychiatry, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. diane.boivin@douglas.mcgill.ca
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium (up)
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:22621360 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 509
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