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Author Touitou, Y.; Reinberg, A.; Touitou, D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Association between light at night, melatonin secretion, sleep deprivation, and the internal clock: Health impacts and mechanisms of circadian disruption Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Life Sciences Abbreviated Journal Life Sci  
  Volume 173 Issue Pages 94-106  
  Keywords Human Health; Review  
  Abstract Exposure to Artificial Light At Night (ALAN) results in a disruption of the circadian system, which is deleterious to health. In industrialized countries, 75% of the total workforce is estimated to have been involved in shift work and night work. Epidemiologic studies, mainly of nurses, have revealed an association between sustained night work and a 50-100% higher incidence of breast cancer. The potential and multifactorial mechanisms of the effects include the suppression of melatonin secretion by ALAN, sleep deprivation, and circadian disruption. Shift and/or night work generally decreases the time spent sleeping, and it disrupts the circadian time structure. In the long run, this desynchronization is detrimental to health, as underscored by a large number of epidemiological studies that have uncovered elevated rates of several diseases, including cancer, diabetes, cardiovascular risks, obesity, mood disorders and age-related macular degeneration. It amounts to a public health issue in the light of the very substantial number of individuals involved. The IARC has classified shift work in group 2A of “probable carcinogens to humans” since “they involve a circadian disorganization”. Countermeasures to the effects of ALAN, such as melatonin, bright light, or psychotropic drugs, have been proposed as a means to combat circadian clock disruption and improve adaptation to shift and night work. We review the evidence for the ALAN impacts on health. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of an in-depth mechanistic understanding to combat the detrimental properties of exposure to ALAN and develop strategies of prevention.  
  Address UHSA – Groupe Hospitalier Paul Guiraud, 54, avenue de la Republique, 94806 Villejuif, France  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0024-3205 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28214594 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2455  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Heo, J.-Y.; Kim, K.; Fava, M.; Mischoulon, D.; Papakostas, G.I.; Kim, M.-J.; Kim, D.J.; Chang, K.-A.J.; Oh, Y.; Yu, B.-H.; Jeon, H.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of smartphone use with and without blue light at night in healthy adults: A randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled comparison Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Journal of Psychiatric Research Abbreviated Journal J Psychiatr Res  
  Volume 87 Issue Pages 61-70  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Smartphones deliver light to users through Light Emitting Diode (LED) displays. Blue light is the most potent wavelength for sleep and mood. This study investigated the immediate effects of smartphone blue light LED on humans at night. We investigated changes in serum melatonin levels, cortisol levels, body temperature, and psychiatric measures with a randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled design of two 3-day admissions. Each subject played smartphone games with either conventional LED or suppressed blue light from 7:30 to 10:00PM (150 min). Then, they were readmitted and conducted the same procedure with the other type of smartphone. Serum melatonin levels were measured in 60-min intervals before, during and after use of the smartphones. Serum cortisol levels and body temperature were monitored every 120 min. The Profile of Mood States (POMS), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), and auditory and visual Continuous Performance Tests (CPTs) were administered. Among the 22 participants who were each admitted twice, use of blue light smartphones was associated with significantly decreased sleepiness (Cohen's d = 0.49, Z = 43.50, p = 0.04) and confusion-bewilderment (Cohen's d = 0.53, Z = 39.00, p = 0.02), and increased commission error (Cohen's d = -0.59, t = -2.64, p = 0.02). Also, users of blue light smartphones experienced a longer time to reach dim light melatonin onset 50% (2.94 vs. 2.70 h) and had increases in body temperature, serum melatonin levels, and cortisol levels, although these changes were not statistically significant. Use of blue light LED smartphones at night may negatively influence sleep and commission errors, while it may not be enough to lead to significant changes in serum melatonin and cortisol levels.  
  Address Department of Psychiatry, Depression Center, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul, South Korea; Depression Clinical and Research Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA; Department of Health Sciences & Technology, Department of Medical Device Management and Research, and Department of Clinical Research Design and Evaluation, Samsung Advanced Institute for Health Sciences & Technology (SAIHST), Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul, South Korea. Electronic address: jeonhj@skku.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0022-3956 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:28017916 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2456  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Alzahrani, H.S.; Khuu, S.K.; Roy, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Modelling the effect of commercially available blue-blocking lenses on visual and non-visual functions Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Clinical & Experimental Optometry Abbreviated Journal Clin Exp Optom  
  Volume in press Issue Pages cxo.12959  
  Keywords Human Health; blue-blocking lenses; non-visual functions; transmittance; visual functions  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Blue-blocking lenses (BBLs) are marketed as providing retinal protection from acute and cumulative exposure to blue light over time. The selective reduction in visible wavelengths transmitted through BBLs is known to influence the photosensitivity of retinal photoreceptors, which affects both visual and non-visual functions. This study measured the spectral transmittance of BBLs and evaluated their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, circadian rhythm, and protection from photochemical retinal damage. METHODS: Seven different types of BBLs from six manufacturers and untinted control lenses with three different powers (+2.00 D, -2.00 D and Plano) were evaluated. The whiteness index of BBLs used in this study was calculated using Commission International de l'Eclairage (CIE) Standard Illuminates D65, and CIE 1964 Standard with a 2 degrees Observer. The protective qualities of BBLs and their effect on blue perception, scotopic vision, and circadian rhythm were evaluated based on their spectral transmittance, which was measured with a Cary 5,000 UV-Vis-NIR spectrophotometer. RESULTS: BBLs were found to reduce blue light (400-500 nm) by 6-43 per cent, providing significant protection from photochemical retinal damage compared to control lenses (p </= 0.05). All BBLs were capable of reducing the perception of blue colours, scotopic sensitivities and circadian sensitivities by 5-36 per cent, 5-24 per cent, and 4-27 per cent, respectively depending on the brand and power of the lens. CONCLUSION: BBLs can provide some protection to the human eye from photochemical retinal damage by reducing a portion of blue light that may affect visual and non-visual performances, such as those critical to scotopic vision, blue perception, and circadian rhythm.  
  Address School of Optometry and Vision Science, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0816-4622 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31441122 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2654  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Nagare, R.; Plitnick, B.; Figueiro, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of exposure duration and light spectra on nighttime melatonin suppression in adolescents and adults Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research & Technology  
  Volume 51 Issue 4 Pages 530-543  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract This study investigated how light exposure duration affects melatonin suppression, a well-established marker of circadian phase, and whether adolescents (13–18 years) are more sensitive to short-wavelength (blue) light than adults (32–51 years). Twenty-four participants (12 adolescents, 12 adults) were exposed to three lighting conditions during successive 4-h study nights that were separated by at least one week. In addition to a dim light (<5 lux) control, participants were exposed to two light spectra (warm (2700 K) and cool (5600 K)) delivering a circadian stimulus of 0.25 at eye level. Repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a significant main effect of exposure duration, indicating that a longer duration exposure suppressed melatonin to a greater degree. The analysis further revealed a significant main effect of spectrum and a significant interaction between spectrum and participant age. For the adolescents, but not the adults, melatonin suppression was significantly greater after exposure to the 5600 K intervention (43%) compared to the 2700 K intervention (29%), suggesting an increased sensitivity to short-wavelength radiation. These results will be used to extend the model of human circadian phototransduction to incorporate factors such as exposure duration and participant age to better predict effective circadian stimulus.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1821  
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Author Yang, M.; Ma, N.; Zhu, Y.; Su, Y.-C.; Chen, Q.; Hsiao, F.-C.; Ji, Y.; Yang, C.-M.; Zhou, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Acute Effects of Intermittent Light Exposure in the Evening on Alertness and Subsequent Sleep Architecture Type Journal Article
  Year 2018 Publication International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health Abbreviated Journal Int J Environ Res Public Health  
  Volume 15 Issue 3 Pages  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Exposure to bright light is typically intermittent in our daily life. However, the acute effects of intermittent light on alertness and sleep have seldom been explored. To investigate this issue, we employed within-subject design and compared the effects of three light conditions: intermittent bright light (30-min pulse of blue-enriched bright light (~1000 lux, ~6000 K) alternating with 30-min dim normal light (~5 lux, ~3600 K) three times); continuous bright light; and continuous dim light on subjective and objective alertness and subsequent sleep structure. Each light exposure was conducted during the three hours before bedtime. Fifteen healthy volunteers (20 +/- 3.4 years; seven males) were scheduled to stay in the sleep laboratory for four separated nights (one for adaptation and the others for the light exposures) with a period of at least one week between nights. The results showed that when compared with dim light, both intermittent light and continuous bright light significantly increased subjective alertness and decreased sleep efficiency (SE) and total sleep time (TST). Intermittent light significantly increased objective alertness than dim light did during the second half of the light-exposure period. Our results suggested that intermittent light was as effective as continuous bright light in their acute effects in enhancing subjective and objective alertness and in negatively impacting subsequent sleep.  
  Address Shenzhen Guohua Optoelectronics Tech. Co., Ltd., Shenzhen 518110, China. guofu.zhou@m.scnu.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1660-4601 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:29543731 Approved no  
  Call Number (up) GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1822  
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