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Author Komada, Y.; Aoki, K.; Gohshi, S.; Ichioka, H.; Shibata, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of television luminance and wavelength at habitual bedtime on melatonin and cortisol secretion in humans: Blue light and melatonin secretion Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sleep and Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Sleep and Biological Rhythms  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 316–322  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to different types of television displays at habitual bedtime on human melatonin and cortisol secretion. Thirteen male participants (mean age: 22.7 ± 0.85 years) were tested over three nights in one baseline and two experimental sessions. Participants were instructed to watch a movie on four different luminance- and wavelength-controlled television displays: normal luminance (450 candela [cd]/m2) or high luminance (1200 cd/m2) and normal blue light or half blue light. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two time points before and after television viewing. There was no significant difference in cortisol secretion due to the different displays. Melatonin suppression was significantly lower following the exposure to the half-blue light display compared with the normal blue light display. These results suggest that the use of half-blue light displays during night time may prevent circadian rhythm dysfunction.  
  Address  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1446-9235 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1149  
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Author Stevens, R.G.; Brainard, G.C.; Blask, D.E.; Lockley, S.W.; Motta, M.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Adverse health effects of nighttime lighting: comments on American Medical Association policy statement Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication American Journal of Preventive Medicine Abbreviated Journal Am J Prev Med  
  Volume 45 Issue 3 Pages 343-346  
  Keywords American Medical Association; Cell Cycle/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; DNA Damage/physiology; *Health Policy; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; United States  
  Abstract The American Medical Association House of Delegates in June of 2012 adopted a policy statement on nighttime lighting and human health. This major policy statement summarizes the scientific evidence that nighttime electric light can disrupt circadian rhythms in humans and documents the rapidly advancing understanding from basic science of how disruption of circadian rhythmicity affects aspects of physiology with direct links to human health, such as cell cycle regulation, DNA damage response, and metabolism. The human evidence is also accumulating, with the strongest epidemiologic support for a link of circadian disruption from light at night to breast cancer. There are practical implications of the basic and epidemiologic science in the form of advancing lighting technologies that better accommodate human circadian rhythmicity.  
  Address University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu  
  Corporate Author (up) Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0749-3797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23953362 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 130  
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Author Falchi, F.; Cinzano, P.; Elvidge, C.D.; Keith, D.M.; Haim, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Limiting the impact of light pollution on human health, environment and stellar visibility Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Environmental Management Abbreviated Journal J Environ Manage  
  Volume 92 Issue 10 Pages 2714-2722  
  Keywords Animals; Animals, Wild; Conservation of Natural Resources; Environment; *Environmental Pollution; Eye; *Health; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects/standards; Melatonin/*antagonists & inhibitors; Sodium; Vision, Ocular/*physiology; Visual Perception  
  Abstract Light pollution is one of the most rapidly increasing types of environmental degradation. Its levels have been growing exponentially over the natural nocturnal lighting levels provided by starlight and moonlight. To limit this pollution several effective practices have been defined: the use of shielding on lighting fixture to prevent direct upward light, particularly at low angles above the horizon; no over lighting, i.e. avoid using higher lighting levels than strictly needed for the task, constraining illumination to the area where it is needed and the time it will be used. Nevertheless, even after the best control of the light distribution is reached and when the proper quantity of light is used, some upward light emission remains, due to reflections from the lit surfaces and atmospheric scatter. The environmental impact of this “residual light pollution”, cannot be neglected and should be limited too. Here we propose a new way to limit the effects of this residual light pollution on wildlife, human health and stellar visibility. We performed analysis of the spectra of common types of lamps for external use, including the new LEDs. We evaluated their emissions relative to the spectral response functions of human eye photoreceptors, in the photopic, scotopic and the 'meltopic' melatonin suppressing bands. We found that the amount of pollution is strongly dependent on the spectral characteristics of the lamps, with the more environmentally friendly lamps being low pressure sodium, followed by high pressure sodium. Most polluting are the lamps with a strong blue emission, like Metal Halide and white LEDs. Migration from the now widely used sodium lamps to white lamps (MH and LEDs) would produce an increase of pollution in the scotopic and melatonin suppression bands of more than five times the present levels, supposing the same photopic installed flux. This increase will exacerbate known and possible unknown effects of light pollution on human health, environment and on visual perception of the Universe by humans. We present quantitative criteria to evaluate the lamps based on their spectral emissions and we suggest regulatory limits for future lighting.  
  Address Istituto di Scienza e Tecnologia dell'Inquinamento Luminoso, Via Roma 13, I-36106 Thiene, Italy. falchi@lightpollution.it  
  Corporate Author (up) Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0301-4797 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:21745709 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 131  
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Author Kavcic, P.; Rojc, B.; Dolenc-Groselj, L.; Claustrat, B.; Fujs, K.; Poljak, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of sleep deprivation and nighttime light exposure on clock gene expression in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Croatian Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Croat Med J  
  Volume 52 Issue 5 Pages 594-603  
  Keywords genomics; epigenetics; hPer2; hBmal1; clock genes; gene expression; biology; human health  
  Abstract Aim

To examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation under light conditions on the expression of two key clock genes, hPer2 and hBmal1, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on plasma melatonin and cortisol levels.

Methods

Blood samples were drawn from 6 healthy individuals at 4-hour intervals for three consecutive nights, including a night of total sleep deprivation (second night). The study was conducted in April-June 2006 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana.

Results

We found a significant diurnal variation in hPer2 and hBmal1 expression levels under baseline (P < 0.001, F = 19.7, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 17.6, df = 30 for hBmal1) and sleep-deprived conditions (P < 0.001, F = 9.2, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 13.2, df = 30 for hBmal1). Statistical analysis with the single cosinor method revealed circadian variation of hPer2 under baseline and of hBmal1 under baseline and sleep-deprived conditions. The peak expression of hPer2 was at 13:55 ± 1:15 hours under baseline conditions and of hBmal1 at 16:08 ± 1:18 hours under baseline and at 17:13 ± 1:35 hours under sleep-deprived conditions. Individual cosinor analysis of hPer2 revealed a loss of circadian rhythm in 3 participants and a phase shift in 2 participants under sleep-deprived conditions. The plasma melatonin and cortisol rhythms confirmed a conventional alignment of the central circadian pacemaker to the habitual sleep/wake schedule.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that 40-hour acute sleep deprivation under light conditions may affect the expression of hPer2 in PBMCs.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0353-9504 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 135  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Reiter, R.; Tan, D.; SanchezBarcelo, E.; Mediavilla, M.; Gitto, E.; Korkmaz, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian mechanisms in the regulation of melatonin synthesis: disruption with light at night and the pathophysiological consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Exp Integr Med  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 13  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract In the past two decades, the results of a number of epidemiological studies have uncovered an association between excessive light exposure at night and the prevalence of cancer. Whereas the evidence supporting this link is strongest between nighttime light and female breast and male prostate cancer, the frequency of other tumor types may also be elevated. Individuals who have the highest reported increase in cancer are chronic night shift workers and flight attendants who routinely fly across numerous time zones.

There are at least two obvious physiological consequences of nighttime light exposure, i.e., a reduction in circulating melatonin levels and disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption). Both these perturbations in experimental animals aggravate tumor growth. Melatonin has a long investigative history in terms of its ability to stymie the growth of many tumor types. Likewise, in the last decade chronodisruption has been unequivocally linked to a variety of abnormal metabolic conditions including excessive tumor growth.

This brief review summarizes the processes by which light after darkness onset impedes melatonin production and disturbs circadian rhythms. The survey also reviews the evidence associating the ostensible danger of excessive nighttime light pollution to cancer risk. If an elevated tumor frequency is definitively proven to be a consequence of light at night and/or chronodisruption, it seems likely that cancer will not be the exclusive pathophysiological change associated with the rampant light pollution characteristic of modern societies.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1309-4572 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 137  
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