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Author Reiter, R.J.; Rosales-Corral, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Antonio Boga, J.; Tan, D.X.; Davis, J.M.; Konturek, P.C.; Konturek, S.J.; Brzozowski, T. url  openurl
  Title The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal and gut melatonin. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 269-274  
  Keywords Human Health; biological clock; chronodisruption; circadian rhythm; gastrointestinal melatonin; peptic ulcer; pineal gland; suprachiasmatic nucleus  
  Abstract Biological rhythms are essential for optimal health (1, 2). Throughout the course of human evolution, hominids were exposed to regularly alternating periods of light and dark during every 24-hour period. This evolutionary period, which for humans may have lasted for three million or more years, allowed species to take advantage of the light:dark cycle to adjust their physiology and to synchronize it with the prevailing light:dark environment. To take advantage of this information, vertebrates, including hominids, evolved a group of neurons to monitor the photoperiodic environment and to adjust organismal, organ and cellular function accordingly.

This paired group of light-responsive neurons is located in the mediobasal preoptic area at the diencephalic-telencephalic junction just anterior to the hypothalamus. Since these neurons lie immediately above the decussating axons of the optic nerve, i.e., the optic chiasma, they are named the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) (3, 4). The SCN orchestrate all known circadian rhythms in vertebrates and are referred to as the master biological clock or the central rhythm generator.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 522  
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Author Chepesiuk, R. url  openurl
  Title Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages A20-A27  
  Keywords Human Health  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 526  
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Hanifin, J.P.; Greeson, J.M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D. url  openurl
  Title Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Type Journal Article
  Year 2001 Publication Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 21 Issue Pages 6405-6412  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 ± 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence–response curves (R 2 = 0.81–0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R 2 = 0.91), which identifies 446–477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 529  
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Author Provencio, I.; Rodriguez, I.R.; Jiang, G.; Hayes, W.P.; Moreira, E.F.; Rollag, M.D. url  openurl
  Title A Novel Human Opsin in the Inner Retina. Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 600-605  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Here we report the identification of a novel human opsin, melanopsin, that is expressed in cells of the mammalian inner retina. The human melanopsin gene consists of 10 exons and is mapped to chromosome 10q22. This chromosomal localization and gene structure differs significantly from that of other human opsins that typically have four to seven exons. A survey of 26 anatomical sites indicates that, in humans, melanopsin is expressed only in the eye. In situ hybridization histochemistry shows that melanopsin expression is restricted to cells within the ganglion and amacrine cell layers of the primate and murine retinas. Notably, expression is not observed in retinal photoreceptor cells, the opsin-containing cells of the outer retina that initiate vision. The unique inner retinal localization of melanopsin suggests that it is not involved in image formation but rather may mediate nonvisual photoreceptive tasks, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the acute suppression of pineal melatonin. The anatomical distribution of melanopsin-positive retinal cells is similar to the pattern of cells known to project from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, a primary circadian pacemaker.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 530  
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Author Lin, M.C.; Kripke, D.F.; Perry, B.L.; Berga, S.L. url  doi
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  Title Night light alters menstrual cycles Type Journal Article
  Year 1990 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Research  
  Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 135-138  
  Keywords Human Health; Light; menstruation; phototherapy  
  Abstract Dewan asserted 20 years ago that a bedside light could shorten and regularize the menstrual cycle among women with long and irregular menstrual patterns. To replicate this, seven volunteers slept with a 100-watt bulb by the bedside from days 13–17 of their menstrual cycles, while nine controls similarly used a dim red placebo (photographic safe light). Indeed, the 100-watt bulbs shortened menstrual cycles from a mean of 45.7 days to 33.1 days and reduced variability, but the placebo had no effect. These results suggest that light may have promise for treatment of infertility, for contraception, and for other endocrine interventions.  
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  ISSN 0165-1781 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 532  
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