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Author Komada, Y.; Aoki, K.; Gohshi, S.; Ichioka, H.; Shibata, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of television luminance and wavelength at habitual bedtime on melatonin and cortisol secretion in humans: Blue light and melatonin secretion Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sleep and Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Sleep and Biological Rhythms  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 316–322  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to different types of television displays at habitual bedtime on human melatonin and cortisol secretion. Thirteen male participants (mean age: 22.7 ± 0.85 years) were tested over three nights in one baseline and two experimental sessions. Participants were instructed to watch a movie on four different luminance- and wavelength-controlled television displays: normal luminance (450 candela [cd]/m2) or high luminance (1200 cd/m2) and normal blue light or half blue light. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two time points before and after television viewing. There was no significant difference in cortisol secretion due to the different displays. Melatonin suppression was significantly lower following the exposure to the half-blue light display compared with the normal blue light display. These results suggest that the use of half-blue light displays during night time may prevent circadian rhythm dysfunction.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1446-9235 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1149  
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Author Kavcic, P.; Rojc, B.; Dolenc-Groselj, L.; Claustrat, B.; Fujs, K.; Poljak, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The impact of sleep deprivation and nighttime light exposure on clock gene expression in humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Croatian Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Croat Med J  
  Volume 52 Issue 5 Pages 594-603  
  Keywords genomics; epigenetics; hPer2; hBmal1; clock genes; gene expression; biology; human health  
  Abstract Aim

To examine the effect of acute sleep deprivation under light conditions on the expression of two key clock genes, hPer2 and hBmal1, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and on plasma melatonin and cortisol levels.

Methods

Blood samples were drawn from 6 healthy individuals at 4-hour intervals for three consecutive nights, including a night of total sleep deprivation (second night). The study was conducted in April-June 2006 at the University Medical Centre Ljubljana.

Results

We found a significant diurnal variation in hPer2 and hBmal1 expression levels under baseline (P < 0.001, F = 19.7, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 17.6, df = 30 for hBmal1) and sleep-deprived conditions (P < 0.001, F = 9.2, df = 30 for hPer2 and P < 0.001, F = 13.2, df = 30 for hBmal1). Statistical analysis with the single cosinor method revealed circadian variation of hPer2 under baseline and of hBmal1 under baseline and sleep-deprived conditions. The peak expression of hPer2 was at 13:55 ± 1:15 hours under baseline conditions and of hBmal1 at 16:08 ± 1:18 hours under baseline and at 17:13 ± 1:35 hours under sleep-deprived conditions. Individual cosinor analysis of hPer2 revealed a loss of circadian rhythm in 3 participants and a phase shift in 2 participants under sleep-deprived conditions. The plasma melatonin and cortisol rhythms confirmed a conventional alignment of the central circadian pacemaker to the habitual sleep/wake schedule.

Conclusion

Our results suggest that 40-hour acute sleep deprivation under light conditions may affect the expression of hPer2 in PBMCs.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0353-9504 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 135  
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Author Reiter, R.; Tan, D.; SanchezBarcelo, E.; Mediavilla, M.; Gitto, E.; Korkmaz, A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian mechanisms in the regulation of melatonin synthesis: disruption with light at night and the pathophysiological consequences Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Experimental and Integrative Medicine Abbreviated Journal J Exp Integr Med  
  Volume 1 Issue 1 Pages 13  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract In the past two decades, the results of a number of epidemiological studies have uncovered an association between excessive light exposure at night and the prevalence of cancer. Whereas the evidence supporting this link is strongest between nighttime light and female breast and male prostate cancer, the frequency of other tumor types may also be elevated. Individuals who have the highest reported increase in cancer are chronic night shift workers and flight attendants who routinely fly across numerous time zones.

There are at least two obvious physiological consequences of nighttime light exposure, i.e., a reduction in circulating melatonin levels and disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption). Both these perturbations in experimental animals aggravate tumor growth. Melatonin has a long investigative history in terms of its ability to stymie the growth of many tumor types. Likewise, in the last decade chronodisruption has been unequivocally linked to a variety of abnormal metabolic conditions including excessive tumor growth.

This brief review summarizes the processes by which light after darkness onset impedes melatonin production and disturbs circadian rhythms. The survey also reviews the evidence associating the ostensible danger of excessive nighttime light pollution to cancer risk. If an elevated tumor frequency is definitively proven to be a consequence of light at night and/or chronodisruption, it seems likely that cancer will not be the exclusive pathophysiological change associated with the rampant light pollution characteristic of modern societies.
 
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1309-4572 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 137  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kretschmer, V.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Griefahn, B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright light effects on working memory, sustained attention and concentration of elderly night shift workers Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Lighting Research and Technology Abbreviated Journal Lighting Research and Technology  
  Volume 44 Issue 3 Pages 316-333  
  Keywords shift work; light at night; light exposure; memory; concentration; human health  
  Abstract Night shift workers show a decline in performance during working time. Due to demographic change, the labour market requires more elderly people to work at night. Ageing is accompanied by a decrease in cognitive abilities, in the capabilities of the visual system and in coping with night work from the age of 40 onwards. This investigation focuses on the effects of bright light exposure on the working memory, concentration and sustained attention of elderly persons during three consecutive night shifts. After statistical control for neuroticism and intelligence as covariates, the results demonstrate that exposure to bright light at night reduces error rates for a working memory task and a concentration performance task but performance on a sustained attention task is completely unaffected.  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1477-1535 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 147  
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Author Boyce, P.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Review: The Impact of Light in Buildings on Human Health Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal Indoor and Built Environment  
  Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 8-20  
  Keywords Human Health; indoor light; circadian disruption; shift work; oncogenesis; Review  
  Abstract The effects of light on health can be divided into three sections. The first is that of light as radiation. Exposure to the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation produced by light sources can damage both the eye and skin, through both thermal and photochemical mechanisms. Such damage is rare for indoor lighting installations designed for vision but can occur in some situations. The second is light operating through the visual system. Lighting enables us to see but lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort are likely to lead to eyestrain. Anyone who frequently experiences eyestrain is not enjoying the best of health. The lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort in buildings are well known and easily avoided. The third is light operating through the circadian system. This is known to influence sleep patterns and believed to be linked to the development of breast cancer among night shift workers. There is still much to learn about the impact of light on human health but what is known is enough to ensure that the topic requires the attention of all those concerned with the lighting of buildings.  
  Address Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, USA  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1420-326X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes (up) Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 292  
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