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Author Warthen, D.M.; Provencio, I. url  openurl
  Title The role of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells in nonimage-forming responses to light Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Eye and Brain Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 4 Issue Pages 43—48  
  Keywords Human Health; amygdala; bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; melanopsin; opsin; optic nerve; retina  
  Abstract Light exerts many effects on behavior and physiology. These effects can be characterized as either image-forming or nonimage-forming (NIF) visual processes. Image-forming vision refers to the process of detecting objects and organisms in the environment and distinguishing their physical characteristics, such as size, shape, and direction of motion. NIF vision, in contrast, refers to effects of light that are independent of fine spatiotemporal vision. NIF effects are many and varied, ranging from modulation of basal physiology, such as heart rate and body temperature, to changes in higher functions, such as mood and cognitive performance. In mammals, many NIF effects of light are dependent upon the inner retinal photopigment melanopsin and the cells in which melanopsin is expressed, the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs). The ipRGCs project broadly throughout the brain. Many of these projections terminate in areas known to mediate NIF effects, while others terminate in regions whose link to photoreception remains to be established. Additionally, the presence of ipRGC projections to areas of the brain with no known link to photoreception suggests the existence of additional ipRGC-mediated NIF effects. This review summarizes the known NIF effects of light and the role of melanopsin and ipRGCs in driving these effects, with an eye toward stimulating further investigation of the many and varied effects of light on physiology and behavior.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 519  
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Author Benke, K.E.; Benke, K.K.; Dimitriadis, C. url  openurl
  Title Spectral content of artificial lighting and effects on health. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of the Australasian College of Nutritional and Environmental Medicine Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 30 Issue 3 Pages 13-15  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract There is an increasing body of evidence indicating possible health effects from prolonged exposure to artificial lighting after dark. Both compact fluorescent lights and light emitting diode lamps have a greater proportion of blue light in the emission spectrum than the older incandescent light sources. Exposure to the blue light component at night has been the subject of ongoing research, with a number of published studies linking blue light content to the disruption of the internal body clock, suppression of melatonin production and various ocular effects. Aside from short-term discomfort, possible health effects include long-term chronic illnesses, including cancer, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. A brief review of recent research is provided, salient health issues are noted and discussed, and some examples of exposure minimisation strategies are suggested.  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 520  
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Author Higuchi, S.; Fukuda, T.; Kozaki, T.; Takahashi, M.; Miura, N. url  doi
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  Title Effectiveness of a Red-visor Cap for Preventing Light-induced Melatonin Suppression during Simulated Night Work Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of PHYSIOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY Abbreviated Journal J Physiol Anthropol  
  Volume 30 Issue 6 Pages 251-258  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Bright light at night improves the alertness of night workers. Melatonin suppression induced by light at night is, however, reported to be a possible risk factor for breast cancer. Short-wavelength light has a strong impact on melatonin suppression. A red-visor cap can cut the short-wavelength light from the upper visual field selectively with no adverse effects on visibility. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a red-visor cap on light-induced melatonin suppression, performance, and sleepiness at night. Eleven healthy young male adults (mean age: 21.2±0.9 yr) volunteered to participate in this study. On the first day, the subjects spent time in dim light (<15 lx) from 20:00 to 03:00 to measure baseline data of nocturnal salivary melatonin concentration. On the second day, the subjects were exposed to light for four hours from 23:00 to 03:00 with a nonvisor cap (500 lx), red-visor cap (approx. 160 lx) and blue-visor cap (approx. 160 lx). Subjective sleepiness and performance of a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) were also measured on the second day. Compared to salivary melatonin concentration under dim light, the decrease in melatonin concentration was significant in a nonvisor cap condition but was not significant in a red-visor cap condition. The percentages of melatonin suppression in the nonvisor cap and red-visor cap conditions at 4 hours after exposure to light were 52.6±22.4% and 7.7±3.3%, respectively. The red-visor cap had no adverse effect on performance of the PVT, brightness and visual comfort, though it tended to increase subjective sleepiness. These results suggest that a red-visor cap is effective in preventing melatonin suppression with no adverse effects on vigilance performance, brightness and visibility.  
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  ISSN 1880-6791 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 521  
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Rosales-Corral, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Antonio Boga, J.; Tan, D.X.; Davis, J.M.; Konturek, P.C.; Konturek, S.J.; Brzozowski, T. url  openurl
  Title The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal and gut melatonin. Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 62 Issue Pages 269-274  
  Keywords Human Health; biological clock; chronodisruption; circadian rhythm; gastrointestinal melatonin; peptic ulcer; pineal gland; suprachiasmatic nucleus  
  Abstract Biological rhythms are essential for optimal health (1, 2). Throughout the course of human evolution, hominids were exposed to regularly alternating periods of light and dark during every 24-hour period. This evolutionary period, which for humans may have lasted for three million or more years, allowed species to take advantage of the light:dark cycle to adjust their physiology and to synchronize it with the prevailing light:dark environment. To take advantage of this information, vertebrates, including hominids, evolved a group of neurons to monitor the photoperiodic environment and to adjust organismal, organ and cellular function accordingly.

This paired group of light-responsive neurons is located in the mediobasal preoptic area at the diencephalic-telencephalic junction just anterior to the hypothalamus. Since these neurons lie immediately above the decussating axons of the optic nerve, i.e., the optic chiasma, they are named the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) (3, 4). The SCN orchestrate all known circadian rhythms in vertebrates and are referred to as the master biological clock or the central rhythm generator.
 
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  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 522  
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.-X.; Korkmaz, A.; Ma, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Obesity and metabolic syndrome: association with chronodisruption, sleep deprivation, and melatonin suppression Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Annals of Medicine Abbreviated Journal Ann Med  
  Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 564-577  
  Keywords Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Child; Chronobiology Disorders/*epidemiology; Comorbidity; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Light/adverse effects; Melatonin/*deficiency/physiology; Metabolic Syndrome X/*epidemiology; Mice; Obesity/*epidemiology; Rats; Sleep Deprivation/*epidemiology  
  Abstract Obesity has become an epidemic in industrialized and developing countries. In 30 years, unless serious changes are made, a majority of adults and many children will be classified as overweight or obese. Whereas fatness alone endangers physiological performance of even simple tasks, the associated co-morbidity of obesity including metabolic syndrome in all its manifestations is a far more critical problem. If the current trend continues as predicted, health care systems may be incapable of handling the myriad of obesity-related diseases. The financial costs, including those due to medical procedures, absenteeism from work, and reduced economic productivity, will jeopardize the financial well-being of industries. The current review summarizes the potential contributions of three processes that may be contributing to humans becoming progressively more overweight: circadian or chronodisruption, sleep deficiency, and melatonin suppression. Based on the information provided in this survey, life-style factors (independent of the availability of abundant calorie-rich foods) may aggravate weight gain. Both epidemiological and experimental data support associations between disrupted physiological rhythms, a reduction in adequate sleep, and light-at-night-induced suppression of an essential endogenously produced molecule, melatonin. The implication is that if these problems were corrected with life-style changes, body-weight could possibly be more easily controlled.  
  Address Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA. reiter@uthscsa.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0785-3890 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:21668294 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 523  
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