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Author Mindel, J.W.; Rojas, S.L.; Kline, D.; Bao, S.; Rezai, A.; Corrigan, J.D.; Nelson, R.J.; D, P.; Magalang, U.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) 0038 Sleeping with Low Levels of Artificial Light at Night Increases Systemic Inflammation in Humans Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Sleep Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 42 Issue Supplement_1 Pages A15-A16  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Introduction

Artificial light at night (ALAN) has become a ubiquitous part of our society. Animal studies have shown that ALAN exposure promotes a depressive-like mood and increases peripheral inflammation likely due to circadian disruption. We hypothesized that sleeping with ALAN will increase systemic inflammation in humans.

Methods

We enrolled 64 subjects [32 with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) adherent to treatment and 32 without sleep disorders] in a randomized, crossover study to determine the effects of sleeping with ALAN (40 lux) or the usual dark condition (control) for 7 nights at home. Sleeping with ALAN was confirmed by an actigraph with an ambient light sensor. Outcome measurements were done at baseline and after sleeping in each condition. The primary outcome was changes in the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels. Secondary outcomes include scores on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Functional Outcomes of Sleep Questionnaire-10 (FOSQ-10), and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS); Psychomotor Vigilance Testing (PVT); actigraphic sleep measures; and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). A random effects linear regression model was used to assess differences adjusting for schedule, visit, and baseline levels. Post-hoc analyses combined results from OSA and non-OSA subjects.

Results

Fifty-eight (30 OSA and 28 non-OSA) subjects, aged 38.4±14.9 years, 33 of whom are male completed the protocol. A log transformation was used so the difference in hsCRP was expressed as a mean ratio. In the combined analysis, the mean hsCRP was 39% higher with ALAN than control (mean ratio=1.39; 95% CI: 1.08-1.80; p=0.012). The effects of ALAN for OSA and non-OSA subjects were not different. ALAN increased the CES-D score by 1.81 (p=0.017) and ESS score by 0.62 (p=0.071) points, and decreased the FOSQ-10 score by 0.36 (p=0.038) points while the PSQI score was unchanged (p=0.860). There were no significant differences in the PVT values, actigraphic sleep measures, or HOMA-IR.

Conclusion

Sleeping with ALAN for seven days significantly increased hsCRP levels and modestly increased depression scores in humans.
 
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  ISSN 0161-8105 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2322  
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Author Bauer, S.E.; Wagner, S.E.; Burch, J.; Bayakly, R.; Vena, J.E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr  
  Volume 12 Issue Pages 23  
  Keywords Human Health; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Georgia/epidemiology; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Registries; Risk Factors  
  Abstract BACKGROUND: Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. METHODS: Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000-2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992-2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0-20 watts per sterradian cm(2)), medium (21-41 watts per sterradian cm(2)), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm(2)). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15-50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings.  
  Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. secbauer@ufl.edu  
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  ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:23594790; PMCID:PMC3651306 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 718  
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Author Walch, O.J.; Cochran, A.; Forger, D.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A global quantification of “normal” sleep schedules using smartphone data Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Science Advances Abbreviated Journal Science Advances  
  Volume 2 Issue 5 Pages e1501705-e1501705  
  Keywords Human Health; Sleep; *Circadian Rhythm; smartphone; society  
  Abstract The influence of the circadian clock on sleep scheduling has been studied extensively in the laboratory; however, the effects of society on sleep remain largely unquantified. We show how a smartphone app that we have developed, ENTRAIN, accurately collects data on sleep habits around the world. Through mathematical modeling and statistics, we find that social pressures weaken and/or conceal biological drives in the evening, leading individuals to delay their bedtime and shorten their sleep. A country’s average bedtime, but not average wake time, predicts sleep duration. We further show that mathematical models based on controlled laboratory experiments predict qualitative trends in sunrise, sunset, and light level; however, these effects are attenuated in the real world around bedtime. Additionally, we find that women schedule more sleep than men and that users reporting that they are typically exposed to outdoor light go to sleep earlier and sleep more than those reporting indoor light. Finally, we find that age is the primary determinant of sleep timing, and that age plays an important role in the variability of population-level sleep habits. This work better defines and personalizes “normal” sleep, produces hypotheses for future testing in the laboratory, and suggests important ways to counteract the global sleep crisis.  
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  ISSN 2375-2548 ISBN Medium  
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  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1440  
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Author Fasciani, I.; Petragnano, F.; Aloisi, G.; Marampon, F.; Rossi, M.; Francesca Coppolino, M.; Rossi, R.; Longoni, B.; Scarselli, M.; Maggio, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title (up) A new threat to dopamine neurons: the downside of artificial light Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Review; Human Health; Parkinson's disease; artificial light; dopamine neurons; melatonin; opsins; photoactivation  
  Abstract Growing awareness of adverse impacts of artificial light on human health has led to recognize light pollution as a significant global environmental issue. Despite, a large number of studies in rodent and monkey models of Parkinson's disease have reported that near infrared light has neuroprotective effects on dopaminergic neurons, recent findings have shown that prolonged exposure of rodents and birds to fluorescent artificial light results in an increase of neuromelanin granules in substantia nigra and loss of dopaminergic neurons. The observed detrimental effect seems to be dependent on a direct effect of light on the substantia nigra rather than a secondary effect of the alterations of circadian rhythms. Moreover, inferences from animal models to human studies have shown a positive correlation between the prevalence of Parkinson's disease and light pollution. The present article discusses experimental evidence supporting a potentially deleterious impact of light on dopaminergic neurons and highlights the mechanisms whereby light might damage neuronal tissue. Moreover, it analyses epidemiological evidence that suggests light pollution to be an environmental risk factor for Parkinson's disease.  
  Address Department of Biotechnological and Applied Clinical Sciences, University of L'Aquila, L'Aquila, Italy. Electronic address: roberto.maggio@univaq.it  
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  ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:32142863 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2839  
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Author Provencio, I.; Rodriguez, I.R.; Jiang, G.; Hayes, W.P.; Moreira, E.F.; Rollag, M.D. url  openurl
  Title (up) A Novel Human Opsin in the Inner Retina. Type Journal Article
  Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 600-605  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Here we report the identification of a novel human opsin, melanopsin, that is expressed in cells of the mammalian inner retina. The human melanopsin gene consists of 10 exons and is mapped to chromosome 10q22. This chromosomal localization and gene structure differs significantly from that of other human opsins that typically have four to seven exons. A survey of 26 anatomical sites indicates that, in humans, melanopsin is expressed only in the eye. In situ hybridization histochemistry shows that melanopsin expression is restricted to cells within the ganglion and amacrine cell layers of the primate and murine retinas. Notably, expression is not observed in retinal photoreceptor cells, the opsin-containing cells of the outer retina that initiate vision. The unique inner retinal localization of melanopsin suggests that it is not involved in image formation but rather may mediate nonvisual photoreceptive tasks, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the acute suppression of pineal melatonin. The anatomical distribution of melanopsin-positive retinal cells is similar to the pattern of cells known to project from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, a primary circadian pacemaker.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 530  
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