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Author Fonken, L.K.; Nelson, R.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Effects of Light at Night on Circadian Clocks and Metabolism Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2014 Publication Endocrine Reviews Abbreviated Journal Endocr Rev  
  Volume 35 Issue 4 Pages 648-670  
  Keywords Human Health; Circadian Rhythm; clock genes; epidemiology; light at night; review  
  Abstract Most organisms display endogenously produced approximately ~24 h fluctuations in physiology and behavior, termed circadian rhythms. Circadian rhythms are driven by a transcriptional-translational feedback loop that is hierarchically expressed throughout the brain and body, with the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus serving as the master circadian oscillator at the top of the hierarchy. Appropriate circadian regulation is important for many homeostatic functions including energy regulation. Multiple genes involved in nutrient metabolism display rhythmic oscillations and metabolically related hormones such as glucagon, insulin, ghrelin, leptin, and corticosterone are released in a circadian fashion. Mice harboring mutations in circadian clock genes alter feeding behavior, endocrine signaling, and dietary fat absorption. Moreover, misalignment between behavioral and molecular circadian clocks can result in obesity in both rodents and humans. Importantly, circadian rhythms are most potently synchronized to the external environment by light information and exposure to light at night potentially disrupts circadian system function. Since the advent of electric lights around the turn of the 20th century, exposure to artificial and irregular light schedules has become commonplace. The increase in exposure to light at night parallels the global increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic disorders. In this review, we propose that exposure to light at night alters metabolic function through disruption of the circadian system. We first provide an introduction to the circadian system, with a specific emphasis on the effects of light on circadian rhythms. Next we address interactions between the circadian system and metabolism. Finally, we review current experimental and epidemiological work directly associating exposure to light at night and metabolism.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience, Wexner Medical Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210 USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Endocrine Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0163-769X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24673196 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 314  
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Author Griefahn, B,; Kretschmer, V.; Hölker, F. openurl 
  Title Chronobiologische und gesundheitsrelevante Wirkungen des Lichts auf den Menschen Type (up) Book Chapter
  Year 2010 Publication LichtRegion. Positionen und Perspektiven im Ruhrgebiet. Essen: Klartext Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 69-80  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Köhler D, Walz M, Hochstadt S  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 855  
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Author Bedrosian, T.A. (ed) pdf  url
openurl 
  Title Circadian Disruption by Light at Night: Implications for Mood Type (up) Book Whole
  Year 2013 Publication Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords circadian disruption; sleep; light at night; melanopsin; mood; mental health; Mood Disorders; epigenetics; red light  
  Abstract Life on Earth has adapted to a consistent 24-h solar cycle. Circadian rhythms in physiology and behavior remain synchronized to the environment using light as the most potent entraining cue. During the past century, however, the widespread adoption of electric light has led to `round-the-clock’ societies. Instead of aligning with the environment, individuals follow artificial and often erratic light cycles created by social and work schedules. In particular, exposure to artificial light at night (LAN), termed “light pollution”, has become pervasive over the past 100 years. Virtually every individual living in the U.S. and Europe experiences this aberrant light exposure, and moreover about 20% of the population performs shift work. LAN may disrupt physiological timekeeping, leading to dysregulation of internal processes and misalignment between behavior and the environment. Recent evidence suggests that individuals exposed to excessive LAN, such as night shift workers, have increased risk for depressive disorders, but the biological mechanism remains unspecified. In mammals, intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) project light information to (1) the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus, regulating circadian rhythms, and (2) to limbic regions, putatively regulating mood. Thus, LAN has the potential to affect both circadian timekeeping and mood. In this dissertation, I present evidence from rodent studies supporting the novel hypothesis that night-time exposure to light disrupts circadian organization and contributes to depressed mood. First, I consider the physiological and behavioral consequences associated with unnatural exposure to LAN. The effects of LAN on circadian output are considered in terms of locomotor activity, the diurnal cortisol rhythm, and diurnal clock protein expression in the brain in Chapter 2. The influence of LAN on behavior and brain plasticity is discussed, with particular focus on depressive-like behavior (Chapter 3) and effects of SSRI treatment (Chapter 4). Effects of LAN on structural plasticity and gene expression in the brain are described, with emphasis on potential correlates of the depressive-like behavior observed under LAN in Chapter 5. Given the prevalence of LAN exposure and its importance, strategies for reversing the effects are offered. Specifically, eliminating LAN quickly reverses behavioral and physiological effects of exposure as described in Chapter 5. In Chapter 6 I report that administration of a pharmacological cytokine inhibitor prevents depressive-like behaviors in LAN, implicating brain inflammation in the behavioral effect. Finally, I demonstrate in Chapter 7 that exposure to red wavelength LAN reduces the effects on brain and behavior, suggesting that LAN acts through specific retinal pathways involving melanopsin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate the consequences of LAN, but also outline potential avenues for prevention or intervention.  
  Address Department of Neuroscience and The Institute for Behavioral Medicine Research The Ohio State University  
  Corporate Author Thesis Ph.D. thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor Bedrosian, T.A.  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 323  
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Author Scheffler, T.; Kyba, C.C.M. url  openurl
  Title Measuring Social Jetlag in Twitter Data Type (up) Conference Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Tenth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media (ICWSM 2016) Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 675-678  
  Keywords Human Health; Sunlight; Society  
  Abstract Social constraints have replaced the natural cycle of light and darkness as the main determinant of wake-up and activity times for many people. In this paper we show how Twitter activity can be used as a source of large-scale, naturally occurring data for the study of circadian rhythm in humans. Our year-long initial study is based on almost 1.5 million observations by over 200,000 users. The progression of the onset of Twitter activity times on free days in the course of the year is consistent with previous survey-based research on wake

times. We show that the difference in wake-up time (implicating lack of sleep) on weekdays compared to Sundays is between 1 hour and over 2 hours depending on the time of year. The data also supports the assertion that Daylight Saving Time greatly disrupts the easing of social jetlag in the Spring transition.
 
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference ICWSM 2016  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1453  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Komada, Y.; Aoki, K.; Gohshi, S.; Ichioka, H.; Shibata, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effects of television luminance and wavelength at habitual bedtime on melatonin and cortisol secretion in humans: Blue light and melatonin secretion Type (up) Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Sleep and Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal Sleep and Biological Rhythms  
  Volume 13 Issue 4 Pages 316–322  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of exposure to different types of television displays at habitual bedtime on human melatonin and cortisol secretion. Thirteen male participants (mean age: 22.7 ± 0.85 years) were tested over three nights in one baseline and two experimental sessions. Participants were instructed to watch a movie on four different luminance- and wavelength-controlled television displays: normal luminance (450 candela [cd]/m2) or high luminance (1200 cd/m2) and normal blue light or half blue light. Salivary melatonin and cortisol levels were measured at two time points before and after television viewing. There was no significant difference in cortisol secretion due to the different displays. Melatonin suppression was significantly lower following the exposure to the half-blue light display compared with the normal blue light display. These results suggest that the use of half-blue light displays during night time may prevent circadian rhythm dysfunction.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1446-9235 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 1149  
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