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Author Erren, T.C.; Lewis, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Hypothesis: ubiquitous circadian disruption can cause cancer Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication European Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Eur J Epidemiol  
  Volume 34 Issue 1 Pages 1-4  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract Circadian disruption (CD) was implicated in chains of cancer causation when the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift-work involving circadian disruption as probably carcinogenic in 2007. In the following decade, epidemiological studies into causal concepts associated with circadian disruption were inconclusive. Unappreciated complexity with an exclusive focus on shift-work, light-at-night, sleep, and melatonin in regard to circadian disruption may be accountable. With compelling non-epidemiological evidence, we posit that ubiquitous circadian disruption causes cancer and, moreover, that this is unexplored epidemiologically. This hypothesis offers a novel explanation why numerous studies in shift-workers evince inconsistent results: If circadian disruption is a ubiquitous causal phenomenon, confining assessments to the workplace, ignoring circadian disruption at play, and potential misclassification of 'who' is 'when' and 'how much' exposed to circadian disruption may disallow detecting the existence and magnitude of cancer risks. The rationale herein provides plausible explanations for previous observations and makes falsifiable predictions.  
  Address Institute and Policlinic for Occupational Medicine, Environmental Medicine and Prevention Research, University Hospital of Cologne, Cologne, Germany. philip.lewis@uk-koeln.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0393-2990 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30547255 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2156  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kalousová, L.; Xiao, B.; Burgard, S.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Material hardship and sleep: results from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Sleep Health Abbreviated Journal Sleep Health  
  Volume 5 Issue 2 Pages 113-127  
  Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Sleep; sleep inequality; Society; sleep outcomes  
  Abstract Objective

Sleep is unequally distributed in the US population. People with low socioeconomic status report worse quality and shorter sleep than people with high socioeconomic status. Past research hypothesized that a potential reason for this link could be exposure to material hardship. This study examines the associations between several material hardships and sleep outcomes.

Methods

We use population-representative cross-sectional data (n = 730) from the Michigan Recession and Recovery Study collected in 2013 and examine the associations between 6 indicators of material hardship (employment instability, financial problems, housing instability, food insecurity, forgone medical care, and the total number of material hardships reported) and 3 sleep outcomes (short sleep, sleep problems, and nonrestorative sleep). We build multivariable logistic regression models controlling for respondents’ characteristics and light pollution near their residence.

Results

In unadjusted models, all material hardships were associated with negative sleep outcomes. In adjusted models, forgone medical care was a statistically significant predictor of nonrestorative sleep (average marginal effect 0.16), as was employment instability (average marginal effect 0.12). The probability of sleep problems and nonrestorative sleep increased with a greater number of hardships overall (average marginal effects of .02 and .05, respectively). We found marginally statistically significant positive associations between food insecurity and short sleep and sleep problems.

Conclusions

This study finds that, except when considering foregone medical care, employment instability, and total count of material hardships, associations between material hardship and negative sleep outcomes are not statistically significant after adjusting for a robust set of sociodemographic and health characteristics.
 
  Address Nuffield College, 1 New Rd, Oxford, OX1 1NF, United Kingdom; lucie.kalousova(at)nuffield.ox.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2352-7218 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2180  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mireku, M.O.; Barker, M.M.; Mutz, J.; Dumontheil, I.; Thomas, M.S.C.; Roosli, M.; Elliott, P.; Toledano, M.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night-time screen-based media device use and adolescents' sleep and health-related quality of life Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Environment International Abbreviated Journal Environ Int  
  Volume 124 Issue Pages 66-78  
  Keywords Human Health  
  Abstract OBJECTIVE: The present study investigates the relationship between night-time screen-based media devices (SBMD) use, which refers to use within 1h before sleep, in both lit and dark rooms, and sleep outcomes and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among 11 to 12-year-olds. METHODS: We analysed baseline data from a large cohort of 6616 adolescents from 39 schools in and around London, United Kingdom, participating in the Study of Cognition Adolescents and Mobile Phone (SCAMP). Adolescents self-reported their use of any SBMD (mobile phone, tablet, laptop, television etc.). Sleep variables were derived from self-reported weekday and/or weekend bedtime, sleep onset latency (SOL) and wake time. Sleep quality was assessed using four standardised dimensions from the Swiss Health Survey. HRQoL was estimated using the KIDSCREEN-10 questionnaire. RESULTS: Over two-thirds (71.5%) of adolescents reported using at least one SBMD at night-time, and about a third (32.2%) reported using mobile phones at night-time in darkness. Night-time mobile phone and television use was associated with higher odds of insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (Odds Ratio, OR=1.82, 95% Confidence Interval, CI [1.59, 2.07] and OR=1.40, 95% CI [1.23, 1.60], respectively). Adolescents who used mobile phones in a room with light were more likely to have insufficient sleep (OR=1.32, 95% CI [1.10, 1.60]) and later sleep midpoint (OR=1.64, 95% CI [1.37, 1.95]) on weekends compared to non-users. The magnitude of these associations was even stronger for those who used mobile phones in darkness for insufficient sleep duration on weekdays (OR=2.13, 95% CI [1.79, 2.54]) and for later sleep midpoint on weekdays (OR=3.88, 95% CI [3.25, 4.62]) compared to non-users. Night-time use of mobile phones was associated with lower HRQoL and use in a dark room was associated with even lower KIDSCREEN-10 score (beta=-1.18, 95% CI [-1.85, -0.52]) compared to no use. CONCLUSIONS: We found consistent associations between night-time SBMD use and poor sleep outcomes and worse HRQoL in adolescents. The magnitude of these associations was stronger when SBMD use occurred in a dark room versus a lit room.  
  Address MRC-PHE Centre for Environment and Health, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK; National Institute for Health Research Health Protection Research Unit in Health Impact of Environmental Hazards at King's College London, a Partnership with Public Health England, and collaboration with Imperial College London, W2 1PG, UK. Electronic address: m.toledano@imperial.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0160-4120 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30640131 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2181  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Prayag, A.S.; Najjar, R.P.; Gronfier, C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Melatonin suppression is exquisitely sensitive to light and primarily driven by melanopsin in humans Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages e12562  
  Keywords Human Health; melatonin suppression; melanopic illuminance  
  Abstract INTRODUCTION: Light elicits a range of non-visual responses in humans. Driven predominantly by intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), but also by rods and/or cones, these responses include melatonin suppression. A sigmoidal relationship has been established between melatonin suppression and light intensity, however photoreceptoral involvement remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we first modelled the relationships between alpha-opic illuminances and melatonin suppression using an extensive dataset by Brainard and colleagues. Our results show that 1) melatonin suppression is better predicted by melanopic illuminance compared to other alpha-opic illuminances, 2) melatonin suppression is predicted to occur at levels as low as ~1.5 melanopic lux (melanopsin-weighted irradiance 0.2 muW/cm(2)), 3) saturation occurs at 305 melanopic lux (melanopsin-weighted irradiance 36.6 muW/cm(2)). We then tested this melanopsin-weighted illuminance response model derived from Brainard and colleagues' data and show that it predicts equally well melatonin suppression data from our laboratory, although obtained using different intensities and exposure duration. DISCUSSION: Together, our findings suggest that melatonin suppression by monochromatic lights is predominantly driven by melanopsin, and that it can be initiated at extremely low melanopic lux levels in experimental conditions. This emphasizes the concern of the non-visual impacts of low light intensities in lighting design and light-emitting devices. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Lyon Neuroscience Research Center, Integrative Physiology of the Brain Arousal Systems, Waking team, Inserm UMRS 1028, CNRS UMR 5292, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Universite de Lyon, F-69000, Lyon, France  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30697806 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2186  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rahman, S.A.; Bibbo, C.; Olcese, J.; Czeisler, C.A.; Robinson, J.N.; Klerman, E.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Relationship between endogenous melatonin concentrations and uterine contractions in late third trimester of human pregnancy Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Pineal Research Abbreviated Journal J Pineal Res  
  Volume 66 Issue 4 Pages e12566  
  Keywords Human Health; Melatonin; Pregnancy  
  Abstract In humans, circulating levels of the hormone melatonin and the initiation of spontaneous labor are both higher at night than during the day. Since activation of uterine melatonin receptors can stimulate human in vitro uterine contractions and these receptors are only expressed on the uterine tissue of women in labor, we hypothesized that circulating melatonin concentrations would affect uterine contractions in vivo. We evaluated the impact of light-induced modulation of melatonin secretion on uterine contractions in women during late third-trimester (~36-39 weeks) of pregnancy in two inpatient protocols. We found a significant (p<0.05) positive linear association between circulating melatonin concentrations and the number of uterine contractions under both protocols. On average, uterine contractions increased between 1.4 to 2.1 contractions per 30 minutes for every 10 pg/ml*h increase in melatonin concentration. These findings have both basic science and clinical implications for pregnant women, since endogenous melatonin levels and melatonin receptor activity can be altered by light and/or pharmaceutical agents.  
  Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0742-3098 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30739346 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2203  
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