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Author (up) Ashkenazi, I. E.; Reinberg, A,; Bicakova-Rocher, A.; Ticher, A.
Title The genetic background of individual variations of circadian-rhythm periods in healthy human adults. Type Journal Article
Year 1993 Publication American Journal of Human Genetics Abbreviated Journal
Volume 52 Issue 6 Pages 1250–1259
Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature; Bronchi; Bronchi: physiology; Circadian Rhythm; Circadian Rhythm: genetics; Female; Genetic Variation; Hand; Hand: physiology; Heart Rate; Humans; Male; Middle Aged; Sex Factors; Sleep
Abstract As a group phenomenon, human variables exhibit a rhythm with a period (tau) equal to 24 h. However, healthy human adults may differ from one another with regard to the persistence of the 24-h periods of a set of variables' rhythms within a given individual. Such an internal desynchronization (or individual circadian dyschronism) was documented during isolation experiments without time cues, both in the present study involving 78 male shift workers and in 20 males and 19 females living in a natural setting. Circadian rhythms of sleep-wake cycles, oral temperature, grip strength of both hands, and heart rate were recorded, and power-spectra analyses of individual time series of about 15 days were used to quantify the rhythm period of each variable. The period of the sleep-wake cycle seldom differed from 24 h, while rhythm periods of the other variables exhibited a trimodal distribution (tau = 24 h, tau > 24 h, tau < 24 h). Among the temperature rhythm periods which were either < 24 h or > 24 h, none was detected between 23.2 and 24 h or between 24 and 24.8 h. Furthermore, the deviations from the 24-h period were predominantly grouped in multiples of +/- 0.8 h. Similar results were obtained when the rhythm periods of hand grip strength were analyzed (for each hand separately). In addition, the distribution of grip strength rhythm periods of the left hand exhibited a gender-related difference. These results suggested the presence of genetically controlled variability. Consequently, the distribution pattern of the periods was analyzed to elucidate its compatibility with a genetic control consisting of either a two-allele system, a multiple-allele system, or a polygenic system. The analysis resulted in structuring a model which integrates the function of a constitutive (essential) gene which produces the exact 24-h period (the Dian domain) with a set of (inducible) polygenes, the alleles of which, contribute identical time entities to the period. The time entities which affected the rhythm periods of the variables examined were in the magnitude of +/- 0.8 h. Such an assembly of genes may create periods ranging from 20 to 28 h (the Circadian domain). The model was termed by us “The Dian-Circadian Model.” This model can also be used to explain the beat phenomena in biological rhythms, the presence of 7-d and 30-d periods, and interindividual differences in sensitivity of rhythm characteristics (phase shifts, synchronization, etc.) to external (and environmental) factors.
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 582
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Author (up) Atkinson, G.; Davenne, D.
Title Relationships between sleep, physical activity and human health Type Journal Article
Year 2007 Publication Physiology & Behavior Abbreviated Journal Physiol Behav
Volume 90 Issue 2-3 Pages 229-235
Keywords Human Health; Activity Cycles/*physiology; Animals; Body Temperature/physiology; Exercise/*physiology; Health; Humans; Motor Activity/physiology; Pineal Gland/physiology; Sleep/*physiology; Wakefulness/physiology
Abstract Although sleep and exercise may seem to be mediated by completely different physiological mechanisms, there is growing evidence for clinically important relationships between these two behaviors. It is known that passive body heating facilitates the nocturnal sleep of healthy elderly people with insomnia. This finding supports the hypothesis that changes in body temperature trigger somnogenic brain areas to initiate sleep. Nevertheless, little is known about how the core and distal thermoregulatory responses to exercise fit into this hypothesis. Such knowledge could also help in reducing sleep problems associated with nocturnal shiftwork. It is difficult to incorporate physical activity into a shiftworker's lifestyle, since it is already disrupted in terms of family commitments and eating habits. A multi-research strategy is needed to identify what the optimal amounts and timing of physical activity are for reducing shiftwork-related sleep problems. The relationships between sleep, exercise and diet are also important, given the recently reported associations between short sleep length and obesity. The cardiovascular safety of exercise timing should also be considered, since recent data suggest that the reactivity of blood pressure to a change in general physical activity is highest during the morning. This time is associated with an increased risk in general of a sudden cardiac event, but more research work is needed to separate the influences of light, posture and exercise per se on the haemodynamic responses to sleep and physical activity following sleep taken at night and during the day as a nap.
Address Research Institute for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Henry Cotton Campus, Webster Street, Liverpool L3 2ET, UK. G.Atkinson@ljmu.ac.uk
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ISSN 0031-9384 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:17067643; PMCID:PMC2782301 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 717
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Author (up) Ayaki, M.; Hattori, A.; Maruyama, Y.; Nakano, M.; Yoshimura, M.; Kitazawa, M.; Negishi, K.; Tsubota, K.
Title Protective effect of blue-light shield eyewear for adults against light pollution from self-luminous devices used at night Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 33 Issue 1 Pages 134-139
Keywords Human health
Abstract We investigated sleep quality and melatonin in 12 adults who wore blue-light shield or control eyewear 2 hours before sleep while using a self-luminous portable device, and assessed visual quality for the two eyewear types. Overnight melatonin secretion was significantly higher after using the blue-light shield (P < 0.05) than with the control eyewear. Sleep efficacy and sleep latency were significantly superior for wearers of the blue-light shield (P < 0.05 for both), and this group reported greater sleepiness during portable device use compared to those using the control eyewear. Participants rated the blue-light shield as providing acceptable visual quality.
Address a Department of Ophthalmology , Keio University School of Medicine , Shinjuku , Tokyo , Japan
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:26730983 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1330
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Author (up) Babaii, A., Adib-Hajbaghery, M., & Hajibagheri, A.
Title Effect of Using Eye Mask on Sleep Quality in Cardiac Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Nursing and Midwifery Studies Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue 4 Pages
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND:

Patients in coronary care unit are at risk of sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation can be associated with increased blood pressure and heart rate, raising the risk of developing cardiovascular problems among patients hospitalized in coronary care unit.

OBJECTIVES:

This study was carried out to examine the effect of eye mask on sleep quality in cardiac patients.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected using a convenient sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. Patients in the control group received routine care. However, in the experimental group, patients received routine care and eye mask for three subsequent nights. In the both groups, the sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh sleep quality index. Data were analyzed by the chi-square test, independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U, and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests.

RESULTS:

After the study, the median scores of the subjective sleep quality, the sleep latency, the sleep duration, the habitual sleep efficiency, and the sleep disturbances domains, as well as the median score of overall Pittsburgh sleep quality index in the experimental group were significantly lower than those in the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of the use of sleep medications and the daytime dysfunction domains (P > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS:

Using eye mask can significantly improve the sleep quality in cardiac patients. Therefore, nurses are recommended to use eye mask in combination with current treatments for improving patients' sleep quality.
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Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2303
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Author (up) Bagci, S.; Sabir, H.; Muller, A.; Reiter, R.J.
Title Effects of altered photoperiod due to COVID-19 lockdown on pregnant women and their fetuses Type Journal Article
Year 2020 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Human Health; Covid-19; circadian disruption; fetus; lockdown; melatonin; pregnant Women
Abstract Maternal circadian rhythms provide highly important input into the entrainment and programming of fetal and newborn circadian rhythms. The light-dark cycle is an important regulator of the internal biological clock. Even though pregnant women spend a greater part of the day at home during the latter stages of pregnancy, natural light exposure is crucial for the fetus. The current recommended COVID-19 lockdown might dramatically alter normal environmental lighting conditions of pregnant women, resulting in exposure to extremely low levels of natural daylight and high-intensity artificial light sources during both day and night. This article summarizes the potential effects on pregnant woman and their fetuses due to prolonged exposure to altered photoperiod and as consequence altered circadian system, known as chronodisruption, that may result from the COVID-19 lockdown.
Address Department of Cell Systems and Anatomy, UT Health San Antonio , San Antonio, Texas, USA
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:32519912 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3007
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Author (up) Ball, L.J.; Palesh, O.; Kriegsfeld, L.J.
Title The Pathophysiologic Role of Disrupted Circadian and Neuroendocrine Rhythms in Breast Carcinogenesis Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Endocrine Reviews Abbreviated Journal Endocrine Reviews
Volume Issue Pages er.2015-1133
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Most physiological processes in the brain and body exhibit daily (circadian) rhythms coordinated by an endogenous master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus that are essential for normal health and functioning. Exposure to sunlight during the day and darkness at night optimally entrains biological rhythms to promote homeostasis and human health. Unfortunately, a major consequence of the modern lifestyle is increased exposure to sun-free environments during the day and artificial lighting at night. Additionally, behavioral disruptions to circadian rhythms (i.e., repeated transmeridian flights, night or rotating shift work, or sleep disturbances) have a profound influence on health and have been linked to a number of pathological conditions, including endocrine-dependent cancers. Specifically, night shift work has been identified as a significant risk factor for breast cancer in industrialized countries. Several mechanisms have been proposed by which shift-work-induced circadian disruptions promote cancer. In this review, we examine the importance of the brain-body link through which circadian disruptions contribute to endocrine-dependent diseases, including breast carcinogenesis, by negatively impacting neuroendocrine and neuroimmune cells and consider preventive measures directed at maximizing circadian health.
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ISSN 0163-769X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1496
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Author (up) Barghini, A.; de Medeiros, B.A.S.
Title Artificial lighting as a vector attractant and cause of disease diffusion Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal Environ Health Perspect
Volume 118 Issue 11 Pages 1503-1506
Keywords Human Health
Abstract BACKGROUND: Traditionally, epidemiologists have considered electrification to be a positive factor. In fact, electrification and plumbing are typical initiatives that represent the integration of an isolated population into modern society, ensuring the control of pathogens and promoting public health. Nonetheless, electrification is always accompanied by night lighting that attracts insect vectors and changes people's behavior. Although this may lead to new modes of infection and increased transmission of insect-borne diseases, epidemiologists rarely consider the role of night lighting in their surveys. OBJECTIVE: We reviewed the epidemiological evidence concerning the role of lighting in the spread of vector-borne diseases to encourage other researchers to consider it in future studies. DISCUSSION: We present three infectious vector-borne diseases-Chagas, leishmaniasis, and malaria-and discuss evidence that suggests that the use of artificial lighting results in behavioral changes among human populations and changes in the prevalence of vector species and in the modes of transmission. CONCLUSION: Despite a surprising lack of studies, existing evidence supports our hypothesis that artificial lighting leads to a higher risk of infection from vector-borne diseases. We believe that this is related not only to the simple attraction of traditional vectors to light sources but also to changes in the behavior of both humans and insects that result in new modes of disease transmission. Considering the ongoing expansion of night lighting in developing countries, additional research on this subject is urgently needed.
Address Laboratorio de Estudos Evolutivos Humanos, Departamento de Genetica e Biologia Evolutiva, Instituto de Biociencias, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brasil. barghini@iee.usp.br
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ISSN 0091-6765 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:20675268; PMCID:PMC2974685 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2184
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Author (up) Bashiri, F.; Hassan, C.R.C.
Title Light Pollution and Its Effect on the Environment Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication International Journal of Fundamental Physical Sciences Abbreviated Journal Intl. J. of Fundamental Phys. Sci.
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages 8-12
Keywords Light pollution, human health, animal behaviour, plant growth
Abstract Light pollution can cause disturbance to humans as well as animals. The aim of this study is to determine the effect of light pollution on human's health, plants, animals, human body and People’s attitude about light pollution. About 90% of people strongly agreed that excessive lighting has adverse effects on a person's health. At least, 70% of people had difficulty in sleeping because of light pollution. Most of people believed that video Billboards, Spotlights, Car headlights and Street lights are the most important source of light pollution and about 60% of people agree that light pollution can affect animal’s sleep. 60% of people believed that excessive artificial light can attract several kinks of birds and insects. The results of this study indicate that the human health, plants growth and animal behaviour are strongly affected by the light pollution.&#8206;
Address Faculty of Engineering University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
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Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 313
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Author (up) Bauer, S.E.; Wagner, S.E.; Burch, J.; Bayakly, R.; Vena, J.E.
Title A case-referent study: light at night and breast cancer risk in Georgia Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication International Journal of Health Geographics Abbreviated Journal Int J Health Geogr
Volume 12 Issue Pages 23
Keywords Human Health; Aged; Aged, 80 and over; Breast Neoplasms/*diagnosis/*epidemiology; Case-Control Studies; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Female; Georgia/epidemiology; Humans; Lighting/*adverse effects; Lung Neoplasms/diagnosis/epidemiology; Middle Aged; Registries; Risk Factors
Abstract BACKGROUND: Literature has identified detrimental health effects from the indiscriminate use of artificial nighttime light. We examined the co-distribution of light at night (LAN) and breast cancer (BC) incidence in Georgia, with the goal to contribute to the accumulating evidence that exposure to LAN increases risk of BC. METHODS: Using Georgia Comprehensive Cancer Registry data (2000-2007), we conducted a case-referent study among 34,053 BC cases and 14,458 lung cancer referents. Individuals with lung cancer were used as referents to control for other cancer risk factors that may be associated with elevated LAN, such as air pollution, and since this cancer type was not previously associated with LAN or circadian rhythm disruption. DMSP-OLS Nighttime Light Time Series satellite images (1992-2007) were used to estimate LAN levels; low (0-20 watts per sterradian cm(2)), medium (21-41 watts per sterradian cm(2)), high (>41 watts per sterradian cm(2)). LAN levels were extracted for each year of exposure prior to case/referent diagnosis in ArcGIS. RESULTS: Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using logistic regression models controlling for individual-level year of diagnosis, race, age at diagnosis, tumor grade, stage; and population-level determinants including metropolitan statistical area (MSA) status, births per 1,000 women aged 15-50, percentage of female smokers, MSA population mobility, and percentage of population over 16 in the labor force. We found that overall BC incidence was associated with high LAN exposure (OR = 1.12, 95% CI [1.04, 1.20]). When stratified by race, LAN exposure was associated with increased BC risk among whites (OR = 1.13, 95% CI [1.05, 1.22]), but not among blacks (OR = 1.02, 95% CI [0.82, 1.28]). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest positive associations between LAN and BC incidence, especially among whites. The consistency of our findings with previous studies suggests that there could be fundamental biological links between exposure to artificial LAN and increased BC incidence, although additional research using exposure metrics at the individual level is required to confirm or refute these findings.
Address Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA. secbauer@ufl.edu
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ISSN 1476-072X ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:23594790; PMCID:PMC3651306 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 718
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Author (up) Bedrosian, T.A.; Nelson, R.J.
Title Timing of light exposure affects mood and brain circuits Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Translational Psychiatry Abbreviated Journal Transl Psychiatry
Volume 7 Issue 1 Pages e1017
Keywords Human Health; Review
Abstract Temporal organization of physiology is critical for human health. In the past, humans experienced predictable periods of daily light and dark driven by the solar day, which allowed for entrainment of intrinsic circadian rhythms to the environmental light-dark cycles. Since the adoption of electric light, however, pervasive exposure to nighttime lighting has blurred the boundaries of day and night, making it more difficult to synchronize biological processes. Many systems are under circadian control, including sleep-wake behavior, hormone secretion, cellular function and gene expression. Circadian disruption by nighttime light perturbs those processes and is associated with increasing incidence of certain cancers, metabolic dysfunction and mood disorders. This review focuses on the role of artificial light at night in mood regulation, including mechanisms through which aberrant light exposure affects the brain. Converging evidence suggests that circadian disruption alters the function of brain regions involved in emotion and mood regulation. This occurs through direct neural input from the clock or indirect effects, including altered neuroplasticity, neurotransmission and clock gene expression. Recently, the aberrant light exposure has been recognized for its health effects. This review summarizes the evidence linking aberrant light exposure to mood.
Address Department of Neuroscience, Behavioral Neuroendocrinology Group, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA
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ISSN 2158-3188 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:28140399; PMCID:PMC5299389 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2446
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