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Author Bonmati-Carrion, M.A.; Hild, K.; Isherwood, C.; Sweeney, S.J.; Revell, V.L.; Skene, D.J.; Rol, M.A.; Madrid, J.A.
Title Relationship between Human Pupillary Light Reflex and Circadian System Status Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 9 Pages e0162476
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), whose photopigment melanopsin has a peak of sensitivity in the short wavelength range of the spectrum, constitute a common light input pathway to the olivary pretectal nucleus (OPN), the pupillary light reflex (PLR) regulatory centre, and to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN), the major pacemaker of the circadian system. Thus, evaluating PLR under short wavelength light (lambdamax </= 500 nm) and creating an integrated PLR parameter, as a possible tool to indirectly assess the status of the circadian system, becomes of interest. Nine monochromatic, photon-matched light stimuli (300 s), in 10 nm increments from lambdamax 420 to 500 nm were administered to 15 healthy young participants (8 females), analyzing: i) the PLR; ii) wrist temperature (WT) and motor activity rhythms (WA), iii) light exposure (L) pattern and iv) diurnal preference (Horne-Ostberg), sleep quality (Pittsburgh) and daytime sleepiness (Epworth). Linear correlations between the different PLR parameters and circadian status index obtained from WT, WA and L recordings and scores from questionnaires were calculated. In summary, we found markers of robust circadian rhythms, namely high stability, reduced fragmentation, high amplitude, phase advance and low internal desynchronization, were correlated with a reduced PLR to 460-490 nm wavelengths. Integrated circadian (CSI) and PLR (cp-PLR) parameters are proposed, that also showed an inverse correlation. These results demonstrate, for the first time, the existence of a close relationship between the circadian system robustness and the pupillary reflex response, two non-visual functions primarily under melanopsin-ipRGC input.
Address Chronobiology Laboratory, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Biology, University of Murcia, IMIB-Arrixaca, 30100, Espinardo, Murcia, Spain
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27636197; PMCID:PMC5026360 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1537
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title Review: The Impact of Light in Buildings on Human Health Type Journal Article
Year 2010 Publication Indoor and Built Environment Abbreviated Journal Indoor and Built Environment
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 8-20
Keywords Human Health; indoor light; circadian disruption; shift work; oncogenesis; Review
Abstract The effects of light on health can be divided into three sections. The first is that of light as radiation. Exposure to the ultraviolet, visible, and infrared radiation produced by light sources can damage both the eye and skin, through both thermal and photochemical mechanisms. Such damage is rare for indoor lighting installations designed for vision but can occur in some situations. The second is light operating through the visual system. Lighting enables us to see but lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort are likely to lead to eyestrain. Anyone who frequently experiences eyestrain is not enjoying the best of health. The lighting conditions that cause visual discomfort in buildings are well known and easily avoided. The third is light operating through the circadian system. This is known to influence sleep patterns and believed to be linked to the development of breast cancer among night shift workers. There is still much to learn about the impact of light on human health but what is known is enough to ensure that the topic requires the attention of all those concerned with the lighting of buildings.
Address Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, New York, USA
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1420-326X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 292
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Author Boyce, P.R.
Title The Present and Future of Lighting Research Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication SDAR* Journal of Sustainable Design & Applied Research Abbreviated Journal
Volume 6 Issue 1 Pages
Keywords Commentary; Lighting; Vision; Human Health
Abstract The aim of this paper is to consider where lighting research is today and what its future might be. There is little doubt that, today, lighting research is an active field. A brief review of the topics being studied reveals that they range from residual studies on visibility and visual discomfort, through attempts to identify the influence of lighting on factors beyond visibility such as mood and behaviour, to the whole new field of light and health. But activity alone is not enough to justify a future. For lighting research to have a future it is necessary for it to

be influential. To become influential, research needs to focus its attention on outcomes that matter to people and the elements of those outcomes on which lighting is known to have a major influence. Further, researchers will have to be determined to overcome the barriers to changing lighting practice. By doing this, lighting research may change the world for the better, to be an important topic, not an irrelevance.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number NC @ ehyde3 @ Serial 2113
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Coyle, W.; Ayers, M.; Kemp, J.; Warfield, B.; Maida, J.; Bowen, C.; Bernecker, C.; Lockley, S.W.; Hanifin, J.P.
Title Solid-state lighting for the International Space Station: Tests of visual performance and melatonin regulation Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Acta Astronautica Abbreviated Journal Acta Astronautica
Volume 92 Issue 1 Pages 21-28
Keywords Human Health; Lighting
Abstract The International Space Station (ISS) uses General Luminaire Assemblies (GLAs) that house fluorescent lamps for illuminating the astronauts' working and living environments. Solid-state light emitting diodes (LEDs) are attractive candidates for replacing the GLAs on the ISS. The advantages of LEDs over conventional fluorescent light sources include lower up-mass, power consumption and heat generation, as well as fewer toxic materials, greater resistance to damage and long lamp life. A prototype Solid-State Lighting Assembly (SSLA) was developed and successfully installed on the ISS. The broad aim of the ongoing work is to test light emitted by prototype SSLAs for supporting astronaut vision and assessing neuroendocrine, circadian, neurobehavioral and sleep effects. Three completed ground-based studies are presented here including experiments on visual performance, color discrimination, and acute plasma melatonin suppression in cohorts of healthy, human subjects under different SSLA light exposure conditions within a high-fidelity replica of the ISS Crew Quarters (CQ). All visual tests were done under indirect daylight at 201 lx, fluorescent room light at 531 lx and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ at 1266 lx. Visual performance was assessed with numerical verification tests (NVT). NVT data show that there are no significant differences in score (F=0.73, p=0.48) or time (F=0.14, p=0.87) for subjects performing five contrast tests (10%–100%). Color discrimination was assessed with Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue tests (FM-100). The FM-100 data showed no significant differences (F=0.01, p=0.99) in color discrimination for indirect daylight, fluorescent room light and 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ. Plasma melatonin suppression data show that there are significant differences (F=29.61, p<0.0001) across the percent change scores of plasma melatonin for five corneal irradiances, ranging from 0 to 405 &#956;W/cm2 of 4870 K SSLA light in the CQ (0–1270 lx). Risk factors for the health and safety of astronauts include disturbed circadian rhythms and altered sleep–wake patterns. These studies will help determine if SSLA lighting can be used both to support astronaut vision and serve as an in-flight countermeasure for circadian desynchrony, sleep disruption and cognitive performance deficits on the ISS.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0094-5765 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1533
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Hanifin, J.P.; Greeson, J.M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D.
Title Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue Pages 6405-6412
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 ± 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence–response curves (R 2 = 0.81–0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R 2 = 0.91), which identifies 446–477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 529
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