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Author Reiter, R.J.; Rosales-Corral, S.; Coto-Montes, A.; Antonio Boga, J.; Tan, D.X.; Davis, J.M.; Konturek, P.C.; Konturek, S.J.; Brzozowski, T.
Title The photoperiod, circadian regulation and chronodisruption: the requisite interplay between the suprachiasmatic nuclei and the pineal and gut melatonin. Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 62 Issue Pages 269-274
Keywords Human Health; biological clock; chronodisruption; circadian rhythm; gastrointestinal melatonin; peptic ulcer; pineal gland; suprachiasmatic nucleus
Abstract Biological rhythms are essential for optimal health (1, 2). Throughout the course of human evolution, hominids were exposed to regularly alternating periods of light and dark during every 24-hour period. This evolutionary period, which for humans may have lasted for three million or more years, allowed species to take advantage of the light:dark cycle to adjust their physiology and to synchronize it with the prevailing light:dark environment. To take advantage of this information, vertebrates, including hominids, evolved a group of neurons to monitor the photoperiodic environment and to adjust organismal, organ and cellular function accordingly.

This paired group of light-responsive neurons is located in the mediobasal preoptic area at the diencephalic-telencephalic junction just anterior to the hypothalamus. Since these neurons lie immediately above the decussating axons of the optic nerve, i.e., the optic chiasma, they are named the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) (3, 4). The SCN orchestrate all known circadian rhythms in vertebrates and are referred to as the master biological clock or the central rhythm generator.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 522
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Author Reiter, R.J.; Tan, D.-X.; Korkmaz, A.; Ma, S.
Title Obesity and metabolic syndrome: association with chronodisruption, sleep deprivation, and melatonin suppression Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Annals of Medicine Abbreviated Journal Ann Med
Volume 44 Issue 6 Pages 564-577
Keywords Human Health; Adolescent; Adult; Animals; Child; Chronobiology Disorders/*epidemiology; Comorbidity; Disease Models, Animal; Humans; Light/adverse effects; Melatonin/*deficiency/physiology; Metabolic Syndrome X/*epidemiology; Mice; Obesity/*epidemiology; Rats; Sleep Deprivation/*epidemiology
Abstract Obesity has become an epidemic in industrialized and developing countries. In 30 years, unless serious changes are made, a majority of adults and many children will be classified as overweight or obese. Whereas fatness alone endangers physiological performance of even simple tasks, the associated co-morbidity of obesity including metabolic syndrome in all its manifestations is a far more critical problem. If the current trend continues as predicted, health care systems may be incapable of handling the myriad of obesity-related diseases. The financial costs, including those due to medical procedures, absenteeism from work, and reduced economic productivity, will jeopardize the financial well-being of industries. The current review summarizes the potential contributions of three processes that may be contributing to humans becoming progressively more overweight: circadian or chronodisruption, sleep deficiency, and melatonin suppression. Based on the information provided in this survey, life-style factors (independent of the availability of abundant calorie-rich foods) may aggravate weight gain. Both epidemiological and experimental data support associations between disrupted physiological rhythms, a reduction in adequate sleep, and light-at-night-induced suppression of an essential endogenously produced molecule, melatonin. The implication is that if these problems were corrected with life-style changes, body-weight could possibly be more easily controlled.
Address Department of Cellular and Structural Biology, UT Health Science Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA. reiter@uthscsa.edu
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ISSN 0785-3890 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21668294 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 523
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Author Salgado-Delgado, R.; Tapia Osorio, A.; Saderi, N.; Escobar, C.
Title Disruption of circadian rhythms: a crucial factor in the etiology of depression Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Depression Research and Treatment Abbreviated Journal Depress Res Treat
Volume 2011 Issue Pages 839743
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Circadian factors might play a crucial role in the etiology of depression. It has been demonstrated that the disruption of circadian rhythms by lighting conditions and lifestyle predisposes individuals to a wide range of mood disorders, including impulsivity, mania and depression. Also, associated with depression, there is the impairment of circadian rhythmicity of behavioral, endocrine, and metabolic functions. Inspite of this close relationship between both processes, the complex relationship between the biological clock and the incidence of depressive symptoms is far from being understood. The efficiency and the timing of treatments based on chronotherapy (e.g., light treatment, sleep deprivation, and scheduled medication) indicate that the circadian system is an essential target in the therapy of depression. The aim of the present review is to analyze the biological and clinical data that link depression with the disruption of circadian rhythms, emphasizing the contribution of circadian desynchrony. Therefore, we examine the conditions that may lead to circadian disruption of physiology and behavior as described in depressive states, and, according to this approach, we discuss therapeutic strategies aimed at treating the circadian system and depression.
Address Departamento de Biologia Celular y Fisiologia, Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 04306 Mexico, DF, Mexico
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ISSN 2090-1321 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:21845223; PMCID:PMC3154570 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 524
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Author Chepesiuk, R.
Title Missing the Dark: Health Effects of Light Pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Environmental Health Perspectives Abbreviated Journal
Volume 117 Issue 1 Pages A20-A27
Keywords Human Health
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 526
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Author Stevens, R.G.
Title Light-at-night, circadian disruption and breast cancer: assessment of existing evidence Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication International Journal of Epidemiology Abbreviated Journal Int J Epidemiol
Volume 38 Issue 4 Pages 963-970
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Blindness/complications/epidemiology; Breast Neoplasms/epidemiology/*etiology/metabolism; Chronobiology Disorders/*complications/epidemiology/metabolism; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Disease Models, Animal; Female; Humans; Light Signal Transduction/physiology; Lighting/adverse effects; Melatonin/biosynthesis; Sleep/physiology; Time Factors; *Work Schedule Tolerance
Abstract BACKGROUND: Breast cancer incidence is increasing globally for largely unknown reasons. The possibility that a portion of the breast cancer burden might be explained by the introduction and increasing use of electricity to light the night was suggested >20 years ago. METHODS: The theory is based on nocturnal light-induced disruption of circadian rhythms, notably reduction of melatonin synthesis. It has formed the basis for a series of predictions including that non-day shift work would increase risk, blind women would be at lower risk, long sleep duration would lower risk and community nighttime light level would co-distribute with breast cancer incidence on the population level. RESULTS: Accumulation of epidemiological evidence has accelerated in recent years, reflected in an International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classification of shift work as a probable human carcinogen (2A). There is also a strong rodent model in support of the light-at-night (LAN) idea. CONCLUSION: If a consensus eventually emerges that LAN does increase risk, then the mechanisms for the effect are important to elucidate for intervention and mitigation. The basic understanding of phototransduction for the circadian system, and of the molecular genetics of circadian rhythm generation are both advancing rapidly, and will provide for the development of lighting technologies at home and at work that minimize circadian disruption, while maintaining visual efficiency and aesthetics. In the interim, there are strategies now available to reduce the potential for circadian disruption, which include extending the daily dark period, appreciate nocturnal awakening in the dark, using dim red light for nighttime necessities, and unless recommended by a physician, not taking melatonin tablets.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-6325, USA. bugs@uchc.edu
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ISSN 0300-5771 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:19380369; PMCID:PMC2734067 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 527
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