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Author Kloog, I.; Haim, A.; Stevens, R.G.; Barchana, M.; Portnov, B.A.
Title Light at night co-distributes with incident breast but not lung cancer in the female population of Israel Type Journal Article
Year 2008 Publication Chronobiology International Abbreviated Journal Chronobiol Int
Volume 25 Issue 1 Pages 65-81
Keywords Human Health; Breast Neoplasms/*epidemiology/etiology; Female; Humans; Israel/epidemiology; *Light; Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology; Multivariate Analysis; Risk Factors
Abstract Recent studies of shift-working women have reported that excessive exposure to light at night (LAN) may be a risk factor for breast cancer. However, no studies have yet attempted to examine the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer incidence on a population level with the goal to assess the coherence of these earlier findings with population trends. Coherence is one of Hill's “criteria” (actually, viewpoints) for an inference of causality. Nighttime satellite images were used to estimate LAN levels in 147 communities in Israel. Multiple regression analysis was performed to investigate the association between LAN and breast cancer incidence rates and, as a test of the specificity of our method, lung cancer incidence rates in women across localities under the prediction of a link with breast cancer but not lung cancer. After adjusting for several variables available on a population level, such as ethnic makeup, birth rate, population density, and local income level, a strong positive association between LAN intensity and breast cancer rate was revealed (p<0.05), and this association strengthened (p<0.01) when only statistically significant factors were filtered out by stepwise regression analysis. Concurrently, no association was found between LAN intensity and lung cancer rate. These results provide coherence of the previously reported case-control and cohort studies with the co-distribution of LAN and breast cancer on a population basis. The analysis yielded an estimated 73% higher breast cancer incidence in the highest LAN exposed communities compared to the lowest LAN exposed communities.
Address Department of Natural Resources & Environmental Management, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel
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ISSN 0742-0528 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:18293150 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 528
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Author Brainard, G.C.; Hanifin, J.P.; Greeson, J.M.; Byrne, B.; Glickman, G.; Gerner, E.; Rollag, M.D.
Title Action spectrum for melatonin regulation in humans: evidence for a novel circadian photoreceptor. Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Journal of Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal
Volume 21 Issue Pages 6405-6412
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The photopigment in the human eye that transduces light for circadian and neuroendocrine regulation, is unknown. The aim of this study was to establish an action spectrum for light-induced melatonin suppression that could help elucidate the ocular photoreceptor system for regulating the human pineal gland. Subjects (37 females, 35 males, mean age of 24.5 ± 0.3 years) were healthy and had normal color vision. Full-field, monochromatic light exposures took place between 2:00 and 3:30 A.M. while subjects' pupils were dilated. Blood samples collected before and after light exposures were quantified for melatonin. Each subject was tested with at least seven different irradiances of one wavelength with a minimum of 1 week between each nighttime exposure. Nighttime melatonin suppression tests (n = 627) were completed with wavelengths from 420 to 600 nm. The data were fit to eight univariant, sigmoidal fluence–response curves (R 2 = 0.81–0.95). The action spectrum constructed from these data fit an opsin template (R 2 = 0.91), which identifies 446–477 nm as the most potent wavelength region providing circadian input for regulating melatonin secretion. The results suggest that, in humans, a single photopigment may be primarily responsible for melatonin suppression, and its peak absorbance appears to be distinct from that of rod and cone cell photopigments for vision. The data also suggest that this new photopigment is retinaldehyde based. These findings suggest that there is a novel opsin photopigment in the human eye that mediates circadian photoreception.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 529
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Author Provencio, I.; Rodriguez, I.R.; Jiang, G.; Hayes, W.P.; Moreira, E.F.; Rollag, M.D.
Title A Novel Human Opsin in the Inner Retina. Type Journal Article
Year 2000 Publication Abbreviated Journal
Volume 20 Issue 2 Pages 600-605
Keywords Human Health
Abstract Here we report the identification of a novel human opsin, melanopsin, that is expressed in cells of the mammalian inner retina. The human melanopsin gene consists of 10 exons and is mapped to chromosome 10q22. This chromosomal localization and gene structure differs significantly from that of other human opsins that typically have four to seven exons. A survey of 26 anatomical sites indicates that, in humans, melanopsin is expressed only in the eye. In situ hybridization histochemistry shows that melanopsin expression is restricted to cells within the ganglion and amacrine cell layers of the primate and murine retinas. Notably, expression is not observed in retinal photoreceptor cells, the opsin-containing cells of the outer retina that initiate vision. The unique inner retinal localization of melanopsin suggests that it is not involved in image formation but rather may mediate nonvisual photoreceptive tasks, such as the regulation of circadian rhythms and the acute suppression of pineal melatonin. The anatomical distribution of melanopsin-positive retinal cells is similar to the pattern of cells known to project from the retina to the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus, a primary circadian pacemaker.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 530
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Author Smith, G.; Vingrys, A.J.; Maddocks, J.D.; Hely, C.P.
Title Color recognition and discrimination under full-moon light Type Journal Article
Year 1994 Publication Applied Optics Abbreviated Journal Appl Opt
Volume 33 Issue 21 Pages 4741-4748
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The ability to recognize and discriminate colors under full-moon light was measured Color naming was performed at three sizes (0.5 degrees , 2 degrees , and 4 degrees ) by the use of one white and six colored chips that spanned the spectrum at two levels of saturation. The results show that correct color recognition is possible under full-moon light. However, the recognition rate depends on a complex interaction between hue, level of saturation, and size of test field. For small fields and desaturated colors, the recognition rate is low. However, for saturated colors, most hues can be recognized at better than chance levels, with red being recognized very accurately.
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Language English Summary Language Original Title (up)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 0003-6935 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:20935847 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 531
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Author Lin, M.C.; Kripke, D.F.; Perry, B.L.; Berga, S.L.
Title Night light alters menstrual cycles Type Journal Article
Year 1990 Publication Psychiatry Research Abbreviated Journal Psychiatry Research
Volume 33 Issue 2 Pages 135-138
Keywords Human Health; Light; menstruation; phototherapy
Abstract Dewan asserted 20 years ago that a bedside light could shorten and regularize the menstrual cycle among women with long and irregular menstrual patterns. To replicate this, seven volunteers slept with a 100-watt bulb by the bedside from days 13–17 of their menstrual cycles, while nine controls similarly used a dim red placebo (photographic safe light). Indeed, the 100-watt bulbs shortened menstrual cycles from a mean of 45.7 days to 33.1 days and reduced variability, but the placebo had no effect. These results suggest that light may have promise for treatment of infertility, for contraception, and for other endocrine interventions.
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Language Summary Language Original Title (up)
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0165-1781 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 532
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