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Author Stevens, R.G.; Zhu, Y.
Title Electric light, particularly at night, disrupts human circadian rhythmicity: is that a problem? Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume (down) 370 Issue Pages 20140120
Keywords Human Health; circadian disruption; breast cancer; circadian genes; artificial light at night; iron
Abstract Over the past 3 billion years, an endogenous circadian rhythmicity has developed in almost all life forms in which daily oscillations in physiology occur. This allows for anticipation of sunrise and sunset. This physiological rhythmicity is kept at precisely 24 h by the daily cycle of sunlight and dark. However, since the introduction of electric lighting, there has been inadequate light during the day inside buildings for a robust resetting of the human endogenous circadian rhythmicity, and too much light at night for a true dark to be detected; this results in circadian disruption and alters sleep/wake cycle, core body temperature, hormone regulation and release, and patterns of gene expression throughout the body. The question is the extent to which circadian disruption compromises human health, and can account for a portion of the modern pandemics of breast and prostate cancers, obesity, diabetes and depression. As societies modernize (i.e. electrify) these conditions increase in prevalence. There are a number of promising leads on putative mechanisms, and epidemiological findings supporting an aetiologic role for electric lighting in disease causation. These include melatonin suppression, circadian gene expression, and connection of circadian rhythmicity to metabolism in part affected by haem iron intake and distribution.
Address Department of Community Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA; bugs@uchc.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1118
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Author Haim, A.; Zubidat, A.E.
Title Artificial light at night: melatonin as a mediator between the environment and epigenome Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume (down) 370 Issue Pages 20140121
Keywords Human Health; melatonin; epigenetic modifications; epigenetics; epigenome; light pollution; breast cancer; oncogenesis; tumorigenesis; biomarkers
Abstract The adverse effects of excessive use of artificial light at night (ALAN) are becoming increasingly evident and associated with several health problems including cancer. Results of epidemiological studies revealed that the increase in breast cancer incidents co-distribute with ALAN worldwide. There is compiling evidence that suggests that melatonin suppression is linked to ALAN-induced cancer risks, but the specific genetic mechanism linking environmental exposure and the development of disease is not well known. Here we propose a possible genetic link between environmental exposure and tumorigenesis processes. We discuss evidence related to the relationship between epigenetic remodelling and oncogene expression. In breast cancer, enhanced global hypomethylation is expected in oncogenes, whereas in tumour suppressor genes local hypermethylation is recognized in the promoter CpG chains. A putative mechanism of action involving epigenetic modifications mediated by pineal melatonin is discussed in relation to cancer prevalence. Taking into account that ALAN-induced epigenetic modifications are reversible, early detection of cancer development is of great significance in the treatment of the disease. Therefore, new biomarkers for circadian disruption need to be developed to prevent ALAN damage.
Address The Israeli Center for Interdisciplinary Research in Chronobiology, Department of Evolutionary and Environmental Biology, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel; ahaim@research.haifa.ac.il
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1119
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Author Jones, T.M.; Durrant, J; Michaelides, E.B.; Green, M.C., M.P.
Title Melatonin: a possible link between the presence of artificial light at night and reductions in biological fitness Type Journal Article
Year 2015 Publication Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci
Volume (down) 370 Issue Pages 20140122
Keywords Human Health
Abstract The mechanisms underpinning the ecological impacts of the presence of artificial night lighting remain elusive. One suspected underlying cause is that the presence of light at night (LAN) supresses nocturnal production of melatonin, a key driver of biological rhythm and a potent antioxidant with a proposed role in immune function. Here, we briefly review the evidence for melatonin as the link between LAN and changes in behaviour and physiology. We then present preliminary data supporting the potential for melatonin to act as a recovery agent mitigating the negative effects of LAN in an invertebrate. Adult crickets (Teleogryllus commodus), exposed to constant illumination, were provided with dietary melatonin (concentrations: 0, 10 or 100 µg ml−1) in their drinking water. We then compared survival, lifetime fecundity and, over a 4-week period, immune function (haemocyte concentration, lysozyme-like and phenoloxidase (PO) activity). Melatonin supplementation was able only partially to mitigate the detrimental effects of LAN: it did not improve survival or fecundity or PO activity, but it had a largely dose-dependent positive effect on haemocyte concentration and lysozyme-like activity. We discuss the implications of these relationships, as well as the usefulness of invertebrates as model species for future studies that explore the effects of LAN.
Address Department of Zoology, The University of Melbourne, 3010 VIC, Australia; theresa@unimelb.edu.au
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title The biological impacts of artificial light at night: from molecules to communities Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1120
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Author Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Arendt, J.
Title Health in a 24-h society Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication The Lancet Abbreviated Journal The Lancet
Volume (down) 358 Issue 9286 Pages 999-1005
Keywords Human Health
Abstract
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0140-6736 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 856
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Author Scheuermaier, K.; Munch, M.; Ronda, J.M.; Duffy, J.F.
Title Improved cognitive morning performance in healthy older adults following blue-enriched light exposure on the previous evening Type Journal Article
Year 2018 Publication Behavioural Brain Research Abbreviated Journal Behav Brain Res
Volume (down) 348 Issue Pages 267-275
Keywords Human Health
Abstract OBJECTIVES: Exposure to light can have acute alerting and circadian phase-shifting effects. This study investigated the effects of evening exposure to blue-enriched polychromatic white (BEL) vs. polychromatic white light (WL) on sleep inertia dissipation the following morning in older adults. METHODS: Ten healthy older adults (average age=63.3 yrs; 6F) participated in a 13-day study comprising three baseline days, an initial circadian phase assessment, four days with 2-h evening light exposures, a post light exposure circadian phase assessment and three recovery days. Participants were randomized to either BEL or WL of the same irradiance for the four evening light exposures. On the next mornings at 2, 12, 22 and 32min after each wake time, the participants completed a 90-s digit-symbol substitution test (DSST) to assess working memory, and objective alertness was assessed using a wake EEG recording. DSST and power density from the wake EEG recordings were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: DSST performance improved with time awake (p<0.0001) and across study days in both light exposure groups (p<0.0001). There was no main effect of group, although we observed a significant day x group interaction (p=0.0004), whereby participants exposed to BEL performed significantly better on the first two mornings after light exposures than participants in WL (post-hoc, p<0.05). On those days, the BEL group showed higher EEG activity in some of the frequency bins in the sigma and beta range (p<0.05) on the wake EEG. CONCLUSION: Exposure to blue-enriched white light in the evening significantly improved DSST performance the following morning when compared to polychromatic white light. This was associated with a higher level of objective alertness on the wake EEG, but not with changes in sleep or circadian timing.
Address Division of Sleep and Circadian Disorders, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, United States; Division of Sleep Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, United States
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0166-4328 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:29684473 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 1899
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