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Author van Geffen, K.G.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol  
  Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages 2082–2089  
  Keywords Caterpillars; development time; diapause; light pollution; pupal mass; pupation; light exposure; light pollution; biology; moths; insects; Mamestra brassicae  
  Abstract Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.  
  Address (up) 1 Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, P.O. box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 306  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Narendra, A.; Reid, S.F.; Raderschall, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Navigational efficiency of nocturnal Myrmecia ants suffers at low light levels Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 3 Pages e58801  
  Keywords Adaptation, Biological/*physiology; Animals; Ants/*physiology; Australian Capital Territory; *Cues; Geographic Information Systems; Homing Behavior/*physiology; *Light; Locomotion/*physiology; Orientation/*physiology; insects  
  Abstract Insects face the challenge of navigating to specific goals in both bright sun-lit and dim-lit environments. Both diurnal and nocturnal insects use quite similar navigation strategies. This is despite the signal-to-noise ratio of the navigational cues being poor at low light conditions. To better understand the evolution of nocturnal life, we investigated the navigational efficiency of a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia pyriformis, at different light levels. Workers of M. pyriformis leave the nest individually in a narrow light-window in the evening twilight to forage on nest-specific Eucalyptus trees. The majority of foragers return to the nest in the morning twilight, while few attempt to return to the nest throughout the night. We found that as light levels dropped, ants paused for longer, walked more slowly, the success in finding the nest reduced and their paths became less straight. We found that in both bright and dark conditions ants relied predominantly on visual landmark information for navigation and that landmark guidance became less reliable at low light conditions. It is perhaps due to the poor navigational efficiency at low light levels that the majority of foragers restrict navigational tasks to the twilight periods, where sufficient navigational information is still available.  
  Address (up) ARC Centre of Excellence in Vision Science, Research School of Biology, The Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia. ajay.narendra@anu.edu.au  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23484052; PMCID:PMC3590162 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 117  
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Author Gonzalez, S.A.; Yanez-Navea, K.; Munoz, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Marine Pollution Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Mar Pollut Bull  
  Volume 83 Issue 1 Pages 265-274  
  Keywords Anthropogenic impact; Coastal urbanization index; Light pollution; Marine tenebrionid; Phaleria maculata; beetles; insects; urbanization; Chile; morphodynamics; Urbanization Index; indicator organisms  
  Abstract The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an “Urbanization Index” based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.  
  Address (up) Departamento de Biologia Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 117, Coquimbo, Chile  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0025-326X ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24768173 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 308  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Ashfaq, M.; Khanam, S.; Khan, M.; Rasheed, F.; Hafeez, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Insect orientation to various color lights in the agricultural biomes of Faisalabad Type Journal Article
  Year 2005 Publication Pakistan Entomologist Abbreviated Journal Pak Entomol  
  Volume 27 Issue 1 Pages 49-52  
  Keywords Animals; Insects; Faisalabad; Pakistan; Diptera; Coleoptera; Lepidoptera  
  Abstract This experiment was conducted in the area of Punjab Agriculture Research Station (PARS) and Chak No.33 JB Faisalabad to evaluate the response insects to varying wavelengths of light. During experiment, lights of six different colors (blue, green, yellow, red, black and white) were tested. All lights were arranged in a line on agriculture land, close to Faisalabad Airport. Tree rows/blocks, forest nursery, fruit garden, wheat, maize and fodder crops were the main vegetative covers in the vicinity. Each selected color light was properly projected on 1 m^2

vertical screen (made of white cotton fabric) placed one meter high above the ground. All lights were kept on simultaneously for half an hour and the insects attracted on both sides of the screens were collected in tubs containing soapy water. At the end of experiment, the collection was shifted to properly labeled storage bottles for counting and identification into respective orders. The

highest number of insects was observed in container placed under black light (ultraviolet light), while the lowest in that of red light. Similarly, the common insect orders frequented among all color lights were Diptera, Coleoptera and

Lepidoptera respectively. The experimental results indicated that insects are attracted in more number on lights with short wavelengths and high frequencies and vice a versa.
 
  Address (up) Department of Agri Entomology, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Pakistan Entomological Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1017-1827 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1477  
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Author Dacke, M.; Baird, E.; Byrne, M.; Scholtz, C.H.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dung beetles use the Milky Way for orientation Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 23 Issue 4 Pages 298-300  
  Keywords Animals; Beetles/*physiology; *Behavior, Animal; Cues; Feces; *Galaxies; Locomotion; Moon; Motor Activity; Orientation/*physiology; *Stars, Celestial; Vision, Ocular/physiology; Milky Way; insects  
  Abstract When the moon is absent from the night sky, stars remain as celestial visual cues. Nonetheless, only birds, seals, and humans are known to use stars for orientation. African ball-rolling dung beetles exploit the sun, the moon, and the celestial polarization pattern to move along straight paths, away from the intense competition at the dung pile. Even on clear moonless nights, many beetles still manage to orientate along straight paths. This led us to hypothesize that dung beetles exploit the starry sky for orientation, a feat that has, to our knowledge, never been demonstrated in an insect. Here, we show that dung beetles transport their dung balls along straight paths under a starlit sky but lose this ability under overcast conditions. In a planetarium, the beetles orientate equally well when rolling under a full starlit sky as when only the Milky Way is present. The use of this bidirectional celestial cue for orientation has been proposed for vertebrates, spiders, and insects, but never proven. This finding represents the first convincing demonstration for the use of the starry sky for orientation in insects and provides the first documented use of the Milky Way for orientation in the animal kingdom.  
  Address (up) Department of Biology, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@biol.lu.se  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23352694 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 116  
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