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Author Picchi, M.S.; Avolio, L.; Azzani, L.; Brombin, O.; Camerini, G.
Title Fireflies and land use in an urban landscape: the case of Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the city of Turin Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J Insect Conserv
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages (down) 797-805
Keywords Turin; insects; Coleoptera Lampyridae; Luciola italica; Urban environment; Fireflies; Light pollution; Ecological corridors; Green areas; Po River; Italy
Abstract Research was carried out in the city of Turin (Northern Italy) in order to assess the suitability of the urban environment for fireflies.The study started in 2007 with an artistic and scientific project promoted by Parco Arte Vivente (PAV—Park of living art). Citizens joining the project recorded 18 areas where they could observe fireflies, which were identified as Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera Lampyridae). All of the 18 areas recorded by citizens were then visited during the summer of 2009 and the abundance of L. italica was estimated using transects. In 12 sites the presence of the firefly was confirmed. The habitat structures of L. italica were woods interspersed with clearings in the urban districts in the hills, and parks along rivers in the lower and more populated part of the city. In sites where fireflies were observed, the level of illuminance measured was significantly lower than in areas where L. italica was absent. The analysis of the landscape around the study areas showed a negative correlation between the extent of urbanization and fireflies abundance. Survival of L. italica populations in the urban area of Turin is influenced by the extent of green areas and the level of artificial illumination. Parks lying among rivers preserve a level of darkness suitable for fireflies and are connected by woody strips growing along the banks of rivers, that probably function as ecological corridors.
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ISSN 1366-638X ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 108
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Author Allema, A.B.; Rossing, A.H.; van der Werf, W.; Heusinkveld, B.G.; Bukovinszky, T.; Steingröver, E.; van Lenteren, C.
Title Effect of light quality on movement of Pterostichus melanarius (Coleoptera: Carabidae) Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Journal of Applied Entomology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 136 Issue 10 Pages (down) 793–800
Keywords Animals; insects; movement activity; movement behaviour; movement speed; red light sensitivity; resting behaviour
Abstract Behaviour of nocturnal insects is routinely observed under red light, but it is unclear how the behaviour under red light compares to behaviour in complete darkness, or under a source of white light. Here, we measure movement behaviour of the nocturnal carabid beetle Pterostichus melanarius Illiger (Coleoptera: Carabidae) using camera recording under a near-infrared (nir), red or white radiation source. Red light significantly reduced movement speed in females similar to the effect of white light and different from nir. Also movement activity and pause length were affected by radiation source, with a significant difference between nir and white light, and with intermediate values in red light. The results presented here indicate that P. melanarius has different movement behaviour under the three radiation sources and suggest that nir rather than red radiation is most appropriate for measuring behaviour in total darkness. However, in the field total darkness is rare both because of natural light sources such as the moon and stars but increasingly also because of ecological light pollution, and therefore red light may still be of use for observing ecologically and practically relevant natural night-time behaviour.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 385
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Author Minnaar, C.; Boyles, J.G.; Minnaar, I.A.; Sole, C.L.; McKechnie, A.E.; McKenzie, A.
Title Stacking the odds: light pollution may shift the balance in an ancient predator-prey arms race Type Journal Article
Year 2014 Publication Journal of Applied Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Appl Ecol
Volume 52 Issue 2 Pages (down) 522-531
Keywords Ecology; animals; bats; insects; predation; Neoromicia capensis; moths; Cape serotine bat; co-evolution; eared moth; Lepidoptera; predator–prey interactions; prey selection
Abstract 1. Artificial night lighting threatens to disrupt strongly conserved light-dependent processes in animals and may have cascading effects on ecosystems as species interactions become altered. Insectivorous bats and their prey have been involved in a nocturnal, co-evolutionary arms race for millions of years. Lights may interfere with anti-bat defensive behaviours in moths, and disrupt a complex and globally ubiquitous interaction between bats and insects, ultimately leading to detrimental consequences for ecosystems on a global scale.

2. We combined experimental and mathematical approaches to determine effects of light pollution on a free-living bat–insect community. We compared prey selection by Cape serotine bats Neoromicia capensis in naturally unlit and artificially lit conditions using a manipulative field experiment, and developed a probabilistic model based on a suite of prey-selection factors to explain differences in observed diet.

3.Moth consumption by N. capensis was low under unlit conditions (mean percentage volume ± SD: 5·91 ± 6·25%), while moth consumption increased sixfold (mean percentage volume ± SD: 35·42 ± 17·90%) under lit conditions despite a decrease in relative moth abundance. Predictive prey-selection models that included high-efficacy estimates for eared-moth defensive behaviour found most support given diet data for bats in unlit conditions. Conversely, models that estimated eared-moth defensive behaviour as absent or low found more support given diet data for bats in lit conditions. Our models therefore suggest the increase in moth consumption was a result of light-induced, decreased eared-moth defensive behaviour.

4. Policy implications. In the current context of unyielding growth in global light pollution, we predict that specialist moth-eating bats and eared moths will face ever-increasing challenges to survival through increased resource competition and predation risk, respectively. Lights should be developed to be less attractive to moths, with the goal of reducing effects on moth behaviour. Unfortunately, market preference for broad-spectrum lighting and possible effects on other taxa make development of moth-friendly lighting improbable. Mitigation should therefore focus on the reduction of temporal, spatial and luminance redundancy in outdoor lighting. Restriction of light inside nature reserves and urban greenbelts can help maintain dark refugia for moth-eating bats and moths, and may become important for their persistence.
Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Mammal Research Institute, University of Pretoria, Hatfield, South Africa
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Wiley Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0021-8901 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @; IDA @ john @ Serial 1085
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Author Burkett, D.A.; Butler, J.F.
Title Laboratory Evaluation of Colored Light as an Attractant for Female Aedes Aegypti, Aedes Albopictus, Anopheles Quadrimaculatus, and Culex Nigripalpus Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication The Florida Entomologist Abbreviated Journal Florida Entomologist
Volume 88 Issue 4 Pages (down) 383-389
Keywords Animals; insects; mosquito; visualometer; Aedes albopictus; Aedes aegypti; Anopheles quadrimaculatus; Culex nigripalpus; Feeding Behavior
Abstract Mosquito feeding activity was monitored in an electronic apparatus (visualometer), having ten ports, illuminated from below with narrow bandwidths of light (700, 650, 600, 550, 500, 450, 400, or 350 nm). Responses of adult female Aedes albopictus Skuse, Ae. aegypti (L.), Anopheles quadrimaculatus, Say and Culex nigripalpus Theobald to feeding stations (blood containers) over each light port. No-light and broad spectrum white light were used as controls. Color preferences were based on electronic detection of feeding times. Aedes aegypti showed no significant feeding preferences over any of the colors. Conversely, Ae. albopictus, An. quadrimaculatus, and Cx. nigripalpus showed preferences for several of the wavelengths of light. In decreasing order, Aedes albopictus fed significantly longer at 600 nm, 500 nm, white, 450 nm, 400 nm, and black. For An. quadrimaculatus, significantly longer feeding durations were found over the black or white controls and all other individual wavelengths had significantly longer feeding durations than 350 nm. Finally, in decreasing order, significantly greater feeding times were recorded for Cx. nigripalpus over 500 nm, 600 nm, 450 nm, white, 650 nm, and 550 nm compared to the other wavelengths tested.
Address Range Operations Environmental ACC/DOPP HQACC-Ranges, Airfields & Airspace Ops; douglas.burkett(at)langley.af.mil
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Publisher Florida Entomological Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
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ISSN 1938-5102 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1368
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Author Bailey, L.A.; Brigham, R.M.; Bohn, S.J.; Boyles, J.G.; Smit, B.
Title An experimental test of the allotonic frequency hypothesis to isolate the effects of light pollution on bat prey selection Type Journal Article
Year 2019 Publication Oecologia Abbreviated Journal Oecologia
Volume 190 Issue 2 Pages (down) 367–374
Keywords Animals; Ecology; bats; moths; insects; mammals
Abstract Artificial lights may be altering interactions between bats and moth prey. According to the allotonic frequency hypothesis (AFH), eared moths are generally unavailable as prey for syntonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies between 20 and 50 kHz within the hearing range of eared moths) due to the moths' ability to detect syntonic bat echolocation. Syntonic bats therefore feed mainly on beetles, flies, true bugs, and non-eared moths. The AFH is expected to be violated around lights where eared moths are susceptible to exploitation by syntonic bats because moths' evasive strategies become less effective. The hypothesis has been tested to date almost exclusively in areas with permanent lighting, where the effects of lights on bat diets are confounded with other aspects of human habitat alteration. We undertook diet analysis in areas with short-term, localized artificial lighting to isolate the effects of artificial lighting and determine if syntonic and allotonic bats (i.e., bats that use echolocation frequencies outside the hearing range of eared moths) consumed more moths under conditions of artificial lights than in natural darkness. We found that syntonic bats increased their consumption of moth prey under experimentally lit conditions, likely owing to a reduction in the ability of eared moths to evade the bats. Eared moths may increase in diets of generalist syntonic bats foraging around artificial light sources, as opposed to allotonic species and syntonic species with a more specialized diet.
Address Department of Zoology and Entomology, Rhodes University, P.O. Box 94, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa. b.smit@ru.ac.za
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0029-8549 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31139944 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2511
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