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Author Smit, B.; Boyles, J.G.; Brigham, R.M.; McKechnie, A.E.
Title Torpor in dark times: patterns of heterothermy are associated with the lunar cycle in a nocturnal bird Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume 26 Issue 3 Pages 241-248
Keywords Animals; *Biological Clocks; Birds/*physiology; *Body Temperature Regulation; Ecosystem; *Feeding Behavior; Insects; *Moon; Seasons; South Africa
Abstract Many studies have shown that endotherms become more heterothermic when the costs of thermoregulation are high and/or when limited energy availability constrains thermoregulatory capacity. However, the roles of many ecological variables, including constraints on foraging opportunities and/or success, remain largely unknown. To test the prediction that thermoregulatory patterns should be related to foraging opportunities in a heterothermic endotherm, we examined the relationship between the lunar cycle and heterothermy in Freckled Nightjars (Caprimulgus tristigma), which are visually orienting, nocturnal insectivores that are dependent on ambient light to forage. This model system provides an opportunity to assess whether variation in foraging opportunities influences the expression of heterothermy. The nightjars were active and foraged for insects when moonlight was available but became inactive and heterothermic in the absence of moonlight. Lunar illumination was a much stronger predictor of the magnitude of heterothermic responses than was air temperature (T(a)). Our data suggest that heterothermy was strongly related to variation in foraging opportunities associated with the lunar cycle, even though food abundance appeared to remain relatively high throughout the study period. Patterns of thermoregulation in this population of Freckled Nightjars provide novel insights into the environmental and ecological determinants of heterothermy, with the lunar cycle, and not T(a), being the strongest predictor of torpor use.
Address DST/NRF Centre of Excellence at the Percy FitzPatrick Institute, Department of Zoology and Entomology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa. smitbe@gmail.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:21628551 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 59
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Author Picchi, M.S.; Avolio, L.; Azzani, L.; Brombin, O.; Camerini, G.
Title Fireflies and land use in an urban landscape: the case of Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera: Lampyridae) in the city of Turin Type Journal Article
Year 2013 Publication Journal of Insect Conservation Abbreviated Journal J Insect Conserv
Volume 17 Issue 4 Pages 797-805
Keywords Turin; insects; Coleoptera Lampyridae; Luciola italica; Urban environment; Fireflies; Light pollution; Ecological corridors; Green areas; Po River; Italy
Abstract Research was carried out in the city of Turin (Northern Italy) in order to assess the suitability of the urban environment for fireflies.The study started in 2007 with an artistic and scientific project promoted by Parco Arte Vivente (PAV—Park of living art). Citizens joining the project recorded 18 areas where they could observe fireflies, which were identified as Luciola italica L. (Coleoptera Lampyridae). All of the 18 areas recorded by citizens were then visited during the summer of 2009 and the abundance of L. italica was estimated using transects. In 12 sites the presence of the firefly was confirmed. The habitat structures of L. italica were woods interspersed with clearings in the urban districts in the hills, and parks along rivers in the lower and more populated part of the city. In sites where fireflies were observed, the level of illuminance measured was significantly lower than in areas where L. italica was absent. The analysis of the landscape around the study areas showed a negative correlation between the extent of urbanization and fireflies abundance. Survival of L. italica populations in the urban area of Turin is influenced by the extent of green areas and the level of artificial illumination. Parks lying among rivers preserve a level of darkness suitable for fireflies and are connected by woody strips growing along the banks of rivers, that probably function as ecological corridors.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1366-638X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 108
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Author Johansen, N.S.; Vänninen, I.; Pinto, D.M.; Nissinen, A.I.; Shipp, L.
Title In the light of new greenhouse technologies: 2. Direct effects of artificial lighting on arthropods and integrated pest management in greenhouse crops Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Annals of Applied Biology Abbreviated Journal
Volume 159 Issue 1 Pages 1-27
Keywords Behaviour; biology; insects; light intensity; mites; photobiology; photoperiod; photoreceptors; plant protection; visual ecology; wavelength distribution
Abstract Novel lighting technology offers the possibility of improved arthropod integrated pest management (IPM) in artificially lighted crops. This review compiles the current knowledge on how greenhouse pest and beneficial arthropods are directly affected by light, with the focus on whiteflies. The effect of ultraviolet depletion on orientation and colour-coded phototaxis are to some extent studied and utilised for control of the flying adult stage of some pest species, but far less is known about the visual ecology of commercially used biological control agents and pollinators, and about how light affects arthropod biology in different life stages. Four approaches for utilisation of artificial light in IPM of whiteflies are suggested: (a) use of attractive visual stimuli incorporated into traps for monitoring and direct control, (b) use of visual stimuli that disrupt the host-detection process, (c) radiation with harmful or inhibitory wavelengths to kill or suppress pest populations and (d) use of time cues to manipulate daily rhythms and photoperiodic responses. Knowledge gaps are identified to design a road map for research on IPM in crops lighted with high-pressure sodium lamps, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and photoselective films. LEDs are concluded to offer possibilities for behavioural manipulation of arthropods, but the extent of such possibilities depends in practice on which wavelength combinations are determined to be optimal for plant production. Furthermore, the direct effects of artificial lighting on IPM must be studied in the context of plant-mediated effects of artificial light on arthropods, as both types of manipulations are possible, particularly with LEDs.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0003-4746 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 112
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Author van Langevelde, F.; Ettema, J.A.; Donners, M.; WallisDeVries, M.F.; Groenendijk, D.
Title Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication Biological Conservation Abbreviated Journal Biological Conservation
Volume 144 Issue 9 Pages 2274-2281
Keywords insects; moths; artificial light; ecology; population dynamics
Abstract During the last decades, artificial night lighting has increased globally, which largely affected many plant and animal species. So far, current research highlights the importance of artificial light with smaller wavelengths in attracting moths, yet the effect of the spectral composition of artificial light on species richness and abundance of moths has not been studied systematically. Therefore, we tested the hypotheses that (1) higher species richness and higher abundances of moths are attracted to artificial light with smaller wavelengths than to light with larger wavelengths, and (2) this attraction is correlated with morphological characteristics of moths, especially their eye size. We indeed found higher species richness and abundances of moths in traps with lamps that emit light with smaller wavelengths. These lamps attracted moths with on average larger body mass, larger wing dimensions and larger eyes. Cascading effects on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, e.g. pollination, can be expected when larger moth species are attracted to these lights. Predatory species with a diet of mainly larger moth species and plant species pollinated by larger moth species might then decline. Moreover, our results indicate a size-bias in trapping moths, resulting in an overrepresentation of larger moth species in lamps with small wavelengths. Our study indicates the potential use of lamps with larger wavelengths to effectively reduce the negative effect of light pollution on moth population dynamics and communities where moths play an important role.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0006-3207 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 114
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Author Moser, J.C.; Reeve, J.D.; Bento, J.M.S.; Della Lucia, T.M.C.; Cameron, R.S.; Heck, N.M.
Title Eye size and behaviour of day- and night-flying leafcutting ant alates Type Journal Article
Year 1999 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal J. Zoology
Volume 264 Issue 1 Pages 69-75
Keywords Atta; leaf-cutting ants; nuptial flight; compound eye; ocelli; ommatidia; insects
Abstract The morphology of insect eyes often seems to be shaped by evolution to match their behaviour and lifestyle. Here the relationship between the nuptial flight behaviour of 10 Atta species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the eye size of male and female alates, including the compound eyes, ommatidia facets, and ocelli were examined. These species can be divided into two distinct groups by nuptial flight behaviour: those that initiate the nuptial flight during the day and those that initiate it at night. The most striking difference between day- vs night-flying alates was in ocellus area, which was almost 50% larger in night-flying species. Night-flying species also had significantly larger ommatidia facets than day-flying species. A scaling relationship was also found between compound eye area, facet diameter, and ocellus area vs overall body size. Detailed observations are also presented on the nuptial flight behaviour of a night- vs day-flying species, A. texana and A. sexdens, respectively. The pattern in A. texana is for a single large and precisely timed nuptial flight before dawn, while flights of A. sexdens last for several hours, beginning at midday. Further observations suggest that the timing of the nuptial flight in A. texana is easily disrupted by light pollution.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication (up) Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 115
Permanent link to this record