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Author Rydin, C; Bolinder, K
Title Moonlight pollination in the gymnosperm Ephedra (Gnetales) Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2015 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal Biol. Lett.
Volume 11 Issue 4 Pages 20140993
Keywords Plants; anemophily; entomophily; lunar phases; nocturnal insects; lunar cycle; light at night; Ephedra; Ephedra distachya; pollination
Abstract Most gymnosperms are wind-pollinated, but some are insect-pollinated, and in Ephedra (Gnetales), both wind pollination and insect pollination occur. Little is, however, known about mechanisms and evolution of pollination syndromes in gymnosperms. Based on four seasons of field studies, we show an unexpected correlation between pollination and the phases of the moon in one of our studied species, Ephedra foeminea. It is pollinated by dipterans and lepidopterans, most of them nocturnal, and its pollination coincides with the full moon of July. This may be adaptive in two ways. Many nocturnal insects navigate using the moon. Further, the spectacular reflection of the full-moonlight in the pollination drops is the only apparent means of nocturnal attraction of insects in these plants. In the sympatric but wind-pollinated Ephedra distachya, pollination is not correlated to the full moon but occurs at approximately the same dates every year. The lunar correlation has probably been lost in most species of Ephedra subsequent an evolutionary shift to wind pollination in the clade. When the services of insects are no longer needed for successful pollination, the adaptive value of correlating pollination with the full moon is lost, and conceivably also the trait.
Address Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, Stockholm 106 91, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1143
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Author Reddy, L.; Reddy, V.; Hemanth, S.; Prasad, P.
Title Modelling and Optimization of Solar Light Trap For “Reducing and Controlling” The Pest Population Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2015 Publication International Journal of Engineering Technology, Management and Applied Sciences Abbreviated Journal Intl. J. of Engr. Tech., Man. & Appl. Sci.
Volume 3 Issue 4 Pages 224-234
Keywords Animals; insects; India; Madanapalli; Chittor; Andhra Pradesh; moonlight; polarization
Abstract Reducing and controlling the pest population using light traps is an age old practice in our crop sector. Though there are several models and designs are available but we would plan to develop something that could be solar powered trap with collecting net and not dependent on any other source like wind power, mechanical power, fuel & electricity. This device operates automatically, turning on the light during light fails i.e., 6 P.M and turns off before sunrises i.e., 6A.M. Most of the damage causing insects are active only during that time. Installing one light trap in an acre attracts at least more than 1000 adult pests for a day. The insects attract solar light trap model had been tested in our field crops like vegetables, paddy, and sugarcane, fruit crops like mango, pomegranate, guava, coconut and tea, coffee and jasmine crops across India. In this study we examine the relationship between the Lunar Phases and the efficiency of light traps in catching pests in the month of March and April at Madanapalli, Chittor, Andhra Pradesh. The lunar phase depending on the polarized moonlight and the relative catch follow the collecting distance. The collecting distance ranged and averaged in the phase angle divisions. The study demonstrated for the first time the effect of increasing polarized moonlight in the first and last quarter on the flying activity of pests. Catching quantity depend on the connection with the collecting distance when is the greatest of collection distance.
Address Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVTM (J.N.T.U.A) Angallu, Madanapalli ,Chittor (Dist), A.P., India
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher IJETMAS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1161
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Author van Geffen, K.G.; van Grunsven, R.H.A.; van Ruijven, J.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.
Title Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2014 Publication Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal Ecol Evol
Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages 2082–2089
Keywords Caterpillars; development time; diapause; light pollution; pupal mass; pupation; light exposure; light pollution; biology; moths; insects; Mamestra brassicae
Abstract Rapidly increasing levels of light pollution subject nocturnal organisms to major alterations of their habitat, the ecological consequences of which are largely unknown. Moths are well-known to be attracted to light at night, but effects of light on other aspects of moth ecology, such as larval development and life-history, remain unknown. Such effects may have important consequences for fitness and thus for moth population sizes. To study the effects of artificial night lighting on development and life-history of moths, we experimentally subjected Mamestra brassicae (Noctuidae) caterpillars to low intensity green, white, red or no artificial light at night and determined their growth rate, maximum caterpillar mass, age at pupation, pupal mass and pupation duration. We found sex-specific effects of artificial light on caterpillar life-history, with male caterpillars subjected to green and white light reaching a lower maximum mass, pupating earlier and obtaining a lower pupal mass than male caterpillars under red light or in darkness. These effects can have major implications for fitness, but were absent in female caterpillars. Moreover, by the time that the first adult moth from the dark control treatment emerged from its pupa (after 110 days), about 85% of the moths that were under green light and 83% of the moths that were under white light had already emerged. These differences in pupation duration occurred in both sexes and were highly significant, and likely result from diapause inhibition by artificial night lighting. We conclude that low levels of nocturnal illumination can disrupt life-histories in moths and inhibit the initiation of pupal diapause. This may result in reduced fitness and increased mortality. The application of red light, instead of white or green light, might be an appropriate measure to mitigate negative artificial light effects on moth life history.
Address 1 Nature Conservation and Plant Ecology Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, P.O. box 47, 6700 AA, Wageningen, the Netherlands
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2045-7758 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 306
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Author Gonzalez, S.A.; Yanez-Navea, K.; Munoz, M.
Title Effect of coastal urbanization on sandy beach coleoptera Phaleria maculata (Kulzer, 1959) in northern Chile Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2014 Publication Marine Pollution Bulletin Abbreviated Journal Mar Pollut Bull
Volume 83 Issue 1 Pages 265-274
Keywords Anthropogenic impact; Coastal urbanization index; Light pollution; Marine tenebrionid; Phaleria maculata; beetles; insects; urbanization; Chile; morphodynamics; Urbanization Index; indicator organisms
Abstract The beetle Phaleria maculata is a common inhabitant of the upper intertidal fringe of Chilean beaches. Anthropogenic intervention in coastal areas has increased intensely, leading to changes in the flora and fauna of sandy beaches. To examine the impact of human activities on P. maculata, we studied several beaches along the northern Chilean coast. Beaches were characterized based on morphodynamics and the level of intervention, leading to the estimation of an “Urbanization Index” based on various indicators. The analysis showed a significant inverse correlation between the rate of urbanization and night sky quality. Larval and adult beetles were almost absent on beaches with high levels of urbanization. The results of simple and multiple correlations based on nMDS ordination showed an inverse relationship between increases in urbanization and the abundance of beetles. Because darkling beetles are very sensitive to human interventions on sandy beaches, we suggest that they are ideal indicator organisms for the health of these environments.
Address Departamento de Biologia Marina, Facultad de Ciencias del Mar, Universidad Catolica del Norte, Casilla 117, Coquimbo, Chile
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0025-326X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:24768173 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 308
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Author Henn, M.; Nichols, H.; Zhang, Y.; Bonner, T.H.
Title Effect of artificial light on the drift of aquatic insects in urban central Texas streams Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2014 Publication Journal of Freshwater Ecology Abbreviated Journal Journal of Freshwater Ecology
Volume 29 Issue 3 Pages 307-318
Keywords light pollution; stream ecology; urban ecology; drift; abiotic factors; Baetidae; Chironomidae; insects; Texas; Simuliidae; Edwards Plateau; light at night; ecology
Abstract Light pollution can reduce night time drift of larval aquatic insects in urban streams by disrupting their circadian rhythms. Previous studies on larval insect drift show that disruption in drift leads to changes in reproduction as well as intraspecific and interspecific interactions. The purpose of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation into the effects of extreme artificial light on insect drift in urbanized, high clarity spring systems of the karst Edwards Plateau, TX. We quantified taxa richness, diversity, and abundance in aquatic insect night time drift under two treatments (ambient night time light and artificial light addition) and among five streams using a paired design. Richness and diversity of drifting aquatic insects were similar between treatments but abundance was 37% less in the light addition treatment than that of the control. Effects of light addition on mean abundance was more notable in large streams with a 58% decrease in Simuliidae (compared to that of the control) and 51% decrease in Baetidae. Reduced drift from light addition suggests the potential of artificial lighting disrupting insect drift and consequently community structure. Results of this experiment support a growing body of knowledge on how urbanized systems influence stream communities.
Address Department of Biology/Aquatic Station, Texas State University, San Marcos, TX, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Taylor & Francis Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0270-5060 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 312
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