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Author Arnold, G.; Mellinger, D.; Markowitz, P.; Burke, M.; Lahar, D.
Title A Win-Win-Win for Municipal Street Lighting: Converting Two-Thirds of Vermont's Street Lights to LED by 2014. Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy. Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Lighting Systems
Abstract Reducing energy costs and enhancing the nighttime environment with LED street lighting

is by now well understood. However, few municipalities and utilities have successfully taken

advantage of this opportunity to convert their street lighting operations to LEDs. Before a

system-wide conversion of existing street lights can occur, a utility must obtain the large amount

of required capital, identify appropriate LED street light equipment for their applications,

consider changes in utility rate structures, and design effective methods for recovering costs.

Using Vermont as a case study, this paper presents a partnership model among the statewide

energy efficiency utility, the state’s largest electric utilities, and several municipalities. The

model was designed to overcome the challenges to widespread LED street light conversion. By

2014, more than two-thirds of Vermont’s municipal street lights will be upgraded to LED

technology. The conversion will: (1) provide municipalities with better nighttime street lighting

and significant cost savings—at no additional capital expense to the municipalities, (2) deliver

8,000 MWh of cost-effective new savings to the energy efficiency utility, and (3) deliver

financially attractive returns for Vermont’s utilities. This win-win-win model is scalable and

replicable, and is now being considered in Massachusetts and Rhode Island
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 446
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Author Pantoni, R.; Fonseca, C.; Brandão, D.
Title Street Lighting System Based on Wireless Sensor Networks. Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Chapter 16 in Energy Efficiency – The Innovative Ways for Smart Energy, the Future Towards Modern Utilities, M Eissa ed. Abbreviated Journal (up)
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Keywords Lighting Systems
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 447
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Author Müller, A.; Wuchterl, G.; Sarazin, M.
Title Measuring the Night Sky Brightness with the Lightmeter. Type Journal Article
Year 2011 Publication ReVMexAA Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 41 Issue Pages 46–49
Keywords Instrumentation; instrumentation: photometers; light pollution; methods: data analysis; methods: observational; site testing
Abstract We present a newly developed, low-cost photometer for long-term monitoring of the night sky brightness and

light pollution on Earth. The so-called Lightmeter is an as far as possible stand-alone operational, fully

weatherproof, and maintenance-free device. It provides a high data sampling rate of up to 1 Hz as well as a

superb sensitivity covering the whole brightness range down to the darkest night time conditions. The excellent

performance of the Lightmeter allows a continuously monitoring of the night sky brightness and opens a wide

range of applications at an observatory site like determining overall sky conditions in real time, cloud detection

and estimation of their velocity, measuring relative changes in extinction as well as the detection of long term

trends in brightness caused by an increase of artificial illumination. We will present first results of measurements

taken at Cerro Armazones, one of the best obser
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 471
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Author Cinzano, P.
Title Night Sky Photometry with Sky Quality Meter Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Technical Report 9, ISTIL. V1.4. Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords Instrumentation; light pollution; night sky brightness; photometry; instruments; calibration
Abstract Sky Quality Meter, a low cost and pocket size night sky brightness photometer, opens to the general public the possibility to quantify the quality of the night sky. Expecting a large diffusion of measurements taken with this instrument, I tested and characterized it. I analyzed with synthetic photometry and laboratory measurements the relationship between the SQM photometrical system and the main systems used in light pollution studies. I evaluated the conversion factors to Johnson’s B and V bands, CIE photopic and CIE scotopic responses for typical spectra and the spectral mismatch correction factors when specific filters are added.
Address Dipartimento di Astronomia, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 2, I-35100 Padova, Italy; cinzano(at)lplab.it
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 473
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Author Davies, T.W.; Bennie, J.; Gaston, K.J.
Title Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Biology Letters Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 8 Issue 5 Pages 764-767
Keywords Ecology; artificial light pollution; community composition; ground-dwelling invertebrates; high pressure sodium; street lights
Abstract Artificial lighting has been used to illuminate the nocturnal environment for centuries and continues to expand with urbanization and economic development. Yet, the potential ecological impact of the resultant light pollution has only recently emerged as a major cause for concern. While investigations have demonstrated that artificial lighting can influence organism behaviour, reproductive success and survivorship, none have addressed whether it is altering the composition of communities. We show, for the first time, that invertebrate community composition is affected by proximity to street lighting independently of the time of day. Five major invertebrate groups contributed to compositional differences, resulting in an increase in the number of predatory and scavenging individuals in brightly lit communities. Our results indicate that street lighting changes the environment at higher levels of biological organization than previously recognized, raising the potential that it can alter the structure and function of ecosystems.
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Call Number LoNNe @ christopher.kyba @ Serial 474
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