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Author Egri, Á.; Száz, D.; Farkas, A.; Pereszlényi, Á; Horváth, G.; Kriska, G.
Title Method to improve the survival of night-swarming mayflies near bridges in areas of distracting light pollution Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 4 Issue 11 Pages (down) 171166
Keywords Animals; Lighting
Abstract Numerous negative ecological effects of urban lighting have been identified during the last decades. In spite of the development of lighting technologies, the detrimental effect of this form of light pollution has not declined. Several insect species are affected including the night-swarming mayfly Ephoron virgo: when encountering bridges during their mass swarming, these mayflies often fall victim to artificial lighting. We show a simple method for the conservation of these mayflies exploiting their positive phototaxis. With downstream-facing light-emitting diode beacon lights above two tributaries of the river Danube, we managed to guide egg-laying females to the water and prevent them from perishing outside the river near urban lights. By means of measuring the mayfly outflow from the river as a function of time and the on/off state of the beacons, we showed that the number of mayflies exiting the river's area was practically zero when our beacons were operating. Tributaries could be the sources of mayfly recolonization in case of water quality degradation of large rivers. The protection of mayfly populations in small rivers and safeguarding their aggregation and oviposition sites is therefore important.
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ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1786
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Author Yonezawa, T.; Uchida, M.; Tomioka, M.; Matsuki, N.
Title Lunar Cycle Influences Spontaneous Delivery in Cows Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 8 Pages (down) e0161735
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract There is a popular belief that the lunar cycle influences spontaneous delivery in both humans and cattle. To assess this relationship, we investigated the synodic distribution of spontaneous deliveries in domestic Holstein cows. We used retrospective data from 428 spontaneous, full-term deliveries within a three-year period derived from the calving records of a private farm in Hokkaido, Japan. Spontaneous birth frequency increased uniformly from the new moon to the full moon phase and decreased until the waning crescent phase. There was a statistically significant peak between the waxing gibbous and full moon phases compared with those between the last quarter and the waning crescent. These changes were clearly observed in deliveries among multiparous cows, whereas they were not evident in deliveries among nulliparous cows. These data suggest the utility of dairy cows as models for bio-meteorological studies, and indicate that monitoring lunar phases may facilitate comprehensive understanding of parturition.
Address Department of Veterinary Medical Sciences, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27580019; PMCID:PMC5006988 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2082
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Author Da Silva, Arnaud; de Jong, Maaike; van Grunsven, Roy; H A Visser, Marcel; E Kempenaers, Bart; Spoelstra, Kamiel
Title Experimental illumination of a forest: no effects of lights of different colours on the onset of the dawn chorus in songbirds Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal
Volume 4 Issue 1 Pages (down) 160638
Keywords animals; birds; dawn song; light spectra; light intensity
Abstract Light pollution is increasing exponentially, but its impact on animal behaviour is still poorly understood. For songbirds, the most repeatable finding is that artificial night lighting leads to an earlier daily onset of dawn singing. Most of these studies are, however, correlational and cannot entirely dissociate effects of light pollution from other effects of urbanization. In addition, there are no studies in which the effects of different light colours on singing have been tested. Here, we investigated whether the timing of dawn singing in wild songbirds is influenced by artificial light using an experimental set-up with conventional street lights. We illuminated eight previously dark forest edges with white, green, red or no light, and recorded daily onset of dawn singing during the breeding season. Based on earlier work, we predicted that onset of singing would be earlier in the lighted treatments, with the strongest effects in the early-singing species. However, we found no significant effect of the experimental night lighting (of any colour) in the 14 species for which we obtained sufficient data. Confounding effects of urbanization in previous studies may explain these results, but we also suggest that the experimental night lighting may not have been strong enough to have an effect on singing.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1619
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Author Thums, M.; Whiting, S.D.; Reisser, J.; Pendoley, K.L.; Pattiaratchi, C.B.; Proietti, M.; Hetzel, Y.; Fisher, R.; Meekan, M.G.
Title Artificial light on water attracts turtle hatchlings during their near shore transit Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R. Soc. open sci.
Volume 3 Issue 5 Pages (down) 160142
Keywords Animals; acoustic telemetry; in-water movement; VR2W positioning system; green turtle; light pollution; coastal development; Chelonia mydas; ecology; sea turtle
Abstract We examined the effect of artificial light on the near shore trajectories of turtle hatchlings dispersing from natal beaches. Green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hatchlings were tagged with miniature acoustic transmitters and their movements tracked within an underwater array of 36 acoustic receivers placed in the near shore zone. A total of 40 hatchlings were tracked, 20 of which were subjected to artificial light during their transit of the array. At the same time, we measured current speed and direction, which were highly variable within and between experimental nights and treatments. Artificial lighting affected hatchling behaviour, with 88% of individual trajectories oriented towards the light and spending, on average, 23% more time in the 2.25 ha tracking array (19.5 ± 5 min) than under ambient light conditions (15.8 ± 5 min). Current speed had little to no effect on the bearing (angular direction) of the hatchling tracks when artificial light was present, but under ambient conditions it influenced the bearing of the tracks when current direction was offshore and above speeds of approximately 32.5 cm s−1. This is the first experimental evidence that wild turtle hatchlings are attracted to artificial light after entering the ocean, a behaviour that is likely to subject them to greater risk of predation. The experimental protocol described in this study can be used to assess the effect of anthropogenic (light pollution, noise, etc.) and natural (wave action, current, wind, moonlight) influences on the in-water movements of sea turtle hatchlings during the early phase of dispersal.
Address Australian Institute of Marine Science c/o The UWA Oceans Institute (MO96), University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, Western Australia 6009, Australia
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1454
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Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G.
Title The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One
Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages (down) e0150884
Keywords Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior
Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.
Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403
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