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Author Wakefield, A.; Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal Roy. Soc. Open Sci.  
  Volume 2 Issue 8 Pages  
  Keywords (up) Animals; artificial lighting; light-emitting diode; street lights; bats; moth predation; Nyctalus  
  Abstract The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TQ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1237  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Longcore, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sensory ecology: night lights alter reproductive behavior of blue tits Type Journal Article
  Year 2010 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 20 Issue 20 Pages R893-5  
  Keywords (up) Animals; Austria; *Cities; Female; *Light; Male; Oviposition/*physiology; Passeriformes/*physiology; *Photoperiod; Sexual Behavior, Animal/*physiology; Vocalization, Animal/*physiology  
  Abstract Research on songbirds indicates that streetlights influence timing of dawn chorus, egg-laying and male success in siring extra-pair young, providing new evidence that artificial lighting is an ecologically disruptive force.  
  Address The Urban Wildlands Group, Los Angeles, CA 90024-0020, USA. longcore@urbanwildlands.org  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:20971434 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 699  
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Author Nordt, A.; Klenke, R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleepless in town--drivers of the temporal shift in dawn song in urban European blackbirds Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 8 Pages e71476  
  Keywords (up) Animals; Automobiles; Cities; Ecosystem; Germany; Humans; Light; Male; Noise; Photoperiod; Sleep; Songbirds/*physiology; Urban Population; *Vocalization, Animal; dawn chorus; morning chorus  
  Abstract Organisms living in urban environments are exposed to different environmental conditions compared to their rural conspecifics. Especially anthropogenic noise and artificial night light are closely linked to urbanization and pose new challenges to urban species. Songbirds are particularly affected by these factors, because they rely on the spread of acoustic information and adjust their behaviour to the rhythm of night and day, e.g. time their dawn song according to changing light intensities. Our aim was to clarify the specific contributions of artificial night light and traffic noise on the timing of dawn song of urban European Blackbirds (Turdus merula). We investigated the onset of blackbird dawn song along a steep urban gradient ranging from an urban forest to the city centre of Leipzig, Germany. This gradient of anthropogenic noise and artificial night light was reflected in the timing of dawn song. In the city centre, blackbirds started their dawn song up to 5 hours earlier compared to those in semi-natural habitats. We found traffic noise to be the driving factor of the shift of dawn song into true night, although it was not completely separable from the effects of ambient night light. We additionally included meteorological conditions into the analysis and found an effect on the song onset. Cloudy and cold weather delayed the onset, but cloud cover was assumed to reflect night light emissions, thus, amplified sky luminance and increased the effect of artificial night light. Beside these temporal effects, we also found differences in the spatial autocorrelation of dawn song onset showing a much higher variability in noisy city areas than in rural parks and forests. These findings indicate that urban hazards such as ambient noise and light pollution show a manifold interference with naturally evolved cycles and have significant effects on the activity patterns of urban blackbirds.  
  Address Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research – UFZ, Department of Conservation Biology, Leipzig, Germany. anja.nordt@ufz.de  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23940759; PMCID:PMC3737108 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 43  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rowse, E.G.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 11 Issue 3 Pages e0150884  
  Keywords (up) Animals; bats; England; United Kingdom; low-pressure sodium; LPS; LED; LED lighting; ecology; urban ecology; Feeding Behavior  
  Abstract We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS) to light emitting diode (LED) street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes), or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, Life Sciences Building, University of Bristol, 24 Tyndall Avenue, Bristol, BS8 1TQ, United Kingdom; liz.rowse(at)bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher PLOS Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:27008274 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1403  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Rowse, E.G., Lewanzik, D.; Stone, E.L.; Harris, S.; Jones, G. url  doi
isbn  openurl
  Title Dark Matters: The Effects of Artificial Lighting on Bats Type Book Chapter
  Year 2015 Publication Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages 187-213  
  Keywords (up) Animals; bats; vertebrates; ecology; artificial light at night; climate change  
  Abstract While artificial lighting is a major component of global change, its biological impacts have only recently been recognised. Artificial lighting attracts and repels animals in taxon-specific ways and affects physiological processes. Being nocturnal, bats are likely to be strongly affected by artificial lighting. Moreover, many species of bats are insectivorous, and insects are also strongly influenced by lighting. Lighting technologies are changing rapidly, with the use of light-emitting diode (LED) lamps increasing. Impacts on bats and their prey depend on the light spectra produced by street lights ; ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths attract more insects and consequently insectivorous bats. Bat responses to lighting are species-specific and reflect differences in flight morphology and performance ; fast-flying aerial hawking species frequently feed around street lights, whereas relatively slow-flying bats that forage in more confined spaces are often light-averse. Both high-pressure sodium and LED lights reduce commuting activity by clutter-tolerant bats of the genera Myotis and Rhinolophus, and these bats still avoided LED lights when dimmed. Light-induced reductions in the activity of frugivorous bats may affect ecosystem services by reducing dispersal of the seeds of pioneer plants and hence reforestation. Rapid changes in street lighting offer the potential to explore mitigation methods such as part-night lighting (PNL), dimming, directed lighting, and motion-sensitive lighting that may have beneficial consequences for light-averse bat specie.  
  Address School of Life Sciences, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; Gareth.Jones(at)bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor Voigt, C.C.; Kingston; T.  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN 978-3-319-25218-6 Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1320  
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