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Author Dwyer, R.G.; Bearhop, S.; Campbell, H.A.; Bryant, D.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Shedding light on light: benefits of anthropogenic illumination to a nocturnally foraging shorebird Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 82 Issue 2 Pages 478-485  
  Keywords Artificial light; Dmsp/Ols; foraging strategy; moonlight; shorebirds; birds; animals; foraging; Tringa totanus; common redshank  
  Abstract Intertidal habitats provide important feeding areas for migratory shorebirds. Anthropogenic developments along coasts can increase ambient light levels at night across adjacent inter-tidal zones. Here, we report the effects of elevated nocturnal light levels upon the foraging strategy of a migratory shorebird (common redshank Tringa totanus) overwintering on an industrialised estuary in Northern Europe. To monitor behaviour across the full intertidal area, individuals were located by day and night using VHF transmitters, and foraging behaviour was inferred from inbuilt posture sensors. Natural light was scored using moon-phase and cloud cover information and nocturnal artificial light levels were obtained using geo-referenced DMSP/OLS night-time satellite imagery at a 1-km resolution. Under high illumination levels, the commonest and apparently preferred foraging behaviour was sight-based. Conversely, birds feeding in areas with low levels of artificial light had an elevated foraging time and fed by touch, but switched to visual rather than tactile foraging behaviour on bright moonlit nights in the absence of cloud cover. Individuals occupying areas which were illuminated continuously by lighting from a large petrochemical complex invariably exhibited a visually based foraging behaviour independently of lunar phase and cloud cover. We show that ambient light levels affect the timing and distribution of foraging opportunities for redshank. We argue that light emitted from an industrial complex improved nocturnal visibility. This allowed sight-based foraging in place of tactile foraging, implying both a preference for sight-feeding and enhanced night-time foraging opportunities under these conditions. The study highlights the value of integrating remotely sensed data and telemetry techniques to assess the effect of anthropogenic change upon nocturnal behaviour and habitat use.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, School of Biosciences, University of Exeter, Cornwall Campus, Penryn, Cornwall, TR10 9EZ, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23190422 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 44  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Prugh, L.R.; Golden, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Does moonlight increase predation risk? Meta-analysis reveals divergent responses of nocturnal mammals to lunar cycles Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication (down) The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 83 Issue 2 Pages 504-514  
  Keywords foraging efficiency; giving-up density; illumination; indirect effects; lunar cycles; moonlight; nocturnality; phylogenetic meta-analysis; predation risk; risk-sensitive foraging  
  Abstract The risk of predation strongly affects mammalian population dynamics and community interactions. Bright moonlight is widely believed to increase predation risk for nocturnal mammals by increasing the ability of predators to detect prey, but the potential for moonlight to increase detection of predators and the foraging efficiency of prey has largely been ignored. Studies have reported highly variable responses to moonlight among species, calling into question the assumption that moonlight increases risk. Here, we conducted a quantitative meta-analysis examining the effects of moonlight on the activity of 59 nocturnal mammal species to test the assumption that moonlight increases predation risk. We examined patterns of lunarphilia and lunarphobia across species in relation to factors such as trophic level, habitat cover preference and visual acuity. Across all species included in the meta-analysis, moonlight suppressed activity. The magnitude of suppression was similar to the presence of a predator in experimental studies of foraging rodents (13.6% and 18.7% suppression, respectively). Contrary to the expectation that moonlight increases predation risk for all prey species, however, moonlight effects were not clearly related to trophic level and were better explained by phylogenetic relatedness, visual acuity and habitat cover. Moonlight increased the activity of prey species that use vision as their primary sensory system and suppressed the activity of species that primarily use other senses (e.g. olfaction, echolocation), and suppression was strongest in open habitat types. Strong taxonomic patterns underlay these relationships: moonlight tended to increase primate activity, whereas it tended to suppress the activity of rodents, lagomorphs, bats and carnivores. These results indicate that visual acuity and habitat cover jointly moderate the effect of moonlight on predation risk, whereas trophic position has little effect. While the net effect of moonlight appears to increase predation risk for most nocturnal mammals, our results highlight the importance of sensory systems and phylogenetic history in determining the level of risk.  
  Address Institute of Arctic Biology, University of Alaska Fairbanks, 311 Irving 1, Fairbanks, AK, 99775, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:24102189 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 83  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cabrera-Cruz, S.A.; Smolinsky, J.A.; McCarthy, K.P.; Buler, J.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Urban areas affect flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication (down) The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume 88 Issue 12 Pages 1873-1887  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; Animals; Aeroecology; bird migration; flight altitude; light pollution; radar; urbanization  
  Abstract 1.Urban areas affect terrestrial ecological processes and local weather, but we know little about their effect on aerial ecological processes. 2.Here, we identify urban from non-urban areas based on the intensity of artificial light at night (ALAN) in the landscape, and, along with weather covariates, evaluate the effect of urbanization on flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds. 3.Birds are attracted to ALAN, hence we predicted that altitudes would be lower over urban than over non-urban areas. However, other factors associated with urbanization may also affect flight altitudes. For example, surface temperature and terrain roughness are higher in urban areas, increasing air turbulence, height of the boundary layer, and affecting local winds. 4.We used data from nine weather surveillance radars in the eastern US to estimate altitudes at five quantiles of the vertical distribution of birds migrating at night over urban and non-urban areas during five consecutive spring and autumn migration seasons. We fit generalized linear mixed models by season for each of the five quantiles of bird flight altitude and their differences between urban and non-urban areas. 5.After controlling for other environmental variables and contrary to our prediction, we found that birds generally fly higher over urban areas compared to rural areas in spring, and marginally higher at the mid layers of the vertical distribution in autumn. We also identified a small interaction effect between urbanization and crosswind speed, and between urbanization and surface air temperature, on flight altitudes. We also found that the difference in flight altitudes of nocturnally migrating birds between urban and non-urban areas varied among radars and seasons, but were consistently higher over urban areas throughout the years sampled. 6.Our results suggest that the effects of urbanization on wildlife extend into the aerosphere, and are complex, stressing the need of understanding the influence of anthropogenic factors on airspace habitat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.  
  Address Department of Entomology and Wildlife Ecology, University of Delaware, Delaware, USA  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31330569 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2604  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Kehoe, R.; Sanders, D.; Cruse, D.; Silk, M.; Gaston, K.J.; Bridle, J.R.; van Veen, F. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Longer photoperiods through range shifts and artificial light lead to a destabilising increase in host-parasitoid interaction strength Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication (down) The Journal of Animal Ecology Abbreviated Journal J Anim Ecol  
  Volume in press Issue Pages in press  
  Keywords Ecology; Aphid; climate change; interaction; light pollution; parasitoid; photoperiod; range expansion; stability  
  Abstract Many organisms are experiencing changing daily light regimes due to latitudinal range shifts driven by climate change and increased artificial light at night (ALAN). Activity patterns are often driven by light cycles, which will have important consequences for species interactions. We tested whether longer photoperiods lead to higher parasitism rates by a day-active parasitoid on its host using a laboratory experiment in which we independently varied day length and the presence of ALAN. We then tested whether reduced nighttime temperature tempers the effect of ALAN. We found that parasitism rate increased with day length, with ALAN intensifying this effect only when the temperature was not reduced at night. The impact of ALAN was more pronounced under short day length. Increased parasitoid activity was not compensated for by reduced lifespan, indicating that increased day length leads to an increase in total parasitism effects on fitness. To test the significance of increased parasitism rate for population dynamics, we developed a host-parasitoid model. The results of the model predicted an increase in time-to-equilibrium with increased day length and, crucially, a threshold day length above which interactions are unstable, leading to local extinctions. Here we demonstrate that ALAN impact interacts with day length and temperature by changing the interaction strength between a common day-active consumer species and its host in a predictable way. Our results further suggest that range expansion or ALAN induced changes in light regimes experienced by insects and their natural enemies will result in unstable dynamics beyond key tipping points in day length.  
  Address College of Life and Environmental Sciences, University of Exeter, Penryn, Cornwall, UK  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0021-8790 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32858779 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3107  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Tähkämö, L.; Ylinen, A.; Puolakka, M.; Halonen, L. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Life cycle cost analysis of three renewed street lighting installations in Finland Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication (down) The International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment Abbreviated Journal Int J Life Cycle Assess  
  Volume 17 Issue 2 Pages 154-164  
  Keywords LED; LED lighting; Life cycle costs; Light-emitting diode; Payback time; Road lighting; Street lighting  
  Abstract Purpose

Outdoor lighting is facing major changes due to the EU legislation on ecodesign of energy-related products, such as the ban of high-pressure mercury (HPM) lamps widely used in outdoor lighting. This article presents life cycle costs (LCC) of three examples of replacing HPM lamps in street lighting in Finland. The purpose of the article is to assess how the development of light-emitting diode (LED) technology affects LCCs and how the division of LCCs differentiates in the cases.

Methods

Two of the cases change from HPM lamps to high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. In the third one, HPM lamps are replaced by LED luminaires. LED technology predictions of price and luminous efficacy are included in different scenarios. The calculations consider investment and operating costs and residual value.

Results and discussion

Each replacement reduces the energy costs approximately by half compared to the original HPM lamp luminaires. Energy costs dominate the LCCs of the HPS lamp installations while investment cost is the dominating one in LED luminaire case. The changes from HPM to HPS technology have payback times lower than 9 years, while changing to LED luminaires is not economic. However, the electricity price is low in this case. The payback times of LED installations can be as low as 6 years if the luminaires are installed in 2015 and an average electricity price is used.

Conclusions

The LCCs of real-life case studies cannot be directly compared, since their luminous properties vary. There is a need for a method for including luminous properties in LCC calculations.
 
  Address Lighting Unit, School of Electrical Engineering, Aalto University, P.O. Box 13340, 00076, Aalto, Finland  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0948-3349 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 332  
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