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Author Polak, T.; Korine, C.; Yair, S.; Holderied, M.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Differential effects of artificial lighting on flight and foraging behaviour of two sympatric bat species in a desert: Light pollution in deserts and bat foraging Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 285 Issue 1 Pages 21-27  
  Keywords ight pollution; desert bats; Eptesicus bottae; flight behaviour; Pipistrellus kuhlii; animals; mammals; bats  
  Abstract Human habitation in deserts can create rich novel resources that may be used by native desert species. However, at night such resources may lose attractiveness when they are in artificially lit areas. For bats, attraction to such manmade habitats might be species specific. In an isolated village in the Negev desert that is known for its high bat activity we investigated the effects of artificial lighting on flight behaviour of two aerial insectivorous bat species: Pipistrellus kuhlii, a non-desert synanthropic bat, common in urban environments and Eptesicus bottae, a desert-dwelling species. Using an acoustic tracking system we reconstructed flight trajectories for bats that flew under artificial lights [Light treatment (L)] versus in natural darkness [Dark treatment (D)]. Under L both P. kuhlii and E. bottae flew significantly faster than under D. Under L, P. kuhlii also flew at significantly lower altitude (i.e. away from a floodlight) than under D. Whereas P. kuhlii foraged both in L and D, E. bottae only foraged in D. In L, activity of E. bottae decreased and it merely transited the illuminated area at commuting rather than foraging speed. Thus, under artificially lighted conditions the non-desert synanthropic species may have a competitive advantage over the native desert species and may outcompete it for aerial insect prey. Controlling light pollution in deserts and keeping important foraging sites unlit may reduce the synanthropic species' competitive advantage over native desert bats.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 99  
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Author Stone, E.L.; Jones, G.; Harris, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Street lighting disturbs commuting bats Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Current Biology : CB Abbreviated Journal Curr Biol  
  Volume 19 Issue 13 Pages 1123-1127  
  Keywords Animals; Behavior, Animal/*physiology; *Chiroptera; *Cities; Conservation of Natural Resources; Echolocation; Ecosystem; *Flight, Animal; Humans; *Light; Random Allocation; *Transportation; Vocalization, Animal  
  Abstract Anthropogenic disturbance is a major cause of worldwide declines in biodiversity. Understanding the implications of this disturbance for species and populations is crucial for conservation biologists wishing to mitigate negative effects. Anthropogenic light pollution is an increasing global problem, affecting ecological interactions across a range of taxa and impacting negatively upon critical animal behaviors including foraging, reproduction, and communication (for review see). Almost all bats are nocturnal, making them ideal subjects for testing the effects of light pollution. Previous studies have shown that bat species adapted to foraging in open environments feed on insects attracted to mercury vapor lamps. Here, we use an experimental approach to provide the first evidence of a negative effect of artificial light pollution on the commuting behavior of a threatened bat species. We installed high-pressure sodium lights that mimic the intensity and light spectra of streetlights along commuting routes of lesser horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus hipposideros). Bat activity was reduced dramatically and the onset of commuting behavior was delayed in the presence of lighting, with no evidence of habituation. These results demonstrate that light pollution may have significant negative impacts upon the selection of flight routes by bats.  
  Address School of Biological Sciences, University of Bristol, Woodland Road, Bristol BS8 1UG, UK. emma.stone@bristol.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0960-9822 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:19540116 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 100  
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Author Meyer, L.A.; Sullivan, S.M.P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Bright lights, big city: influences of ecological light pollution on reciprocal stream-riparian invertebrate fluxes Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication Ecological Applications Abbreviated Journal Ecological Applications  
  Volume 23 Issue 6 Pages 1322-1330  
  Keywords ecological light pollution; ecosystem function; stream–riparian invertebrate fluxes; tetragnathid spiders; urban streams  
  Abstract Cities produce considerable ecological light pollution (ELP), yet the effects of artificial night lighting on biological communities and ecosystem function have not been fully explored. From June 2010 to June 2011, we surveyed aquatic emergent insects, riparian arthropods entering the water, and riparian spiders of the family Tetragnathidae at nine stream reaches representing common ambient ELP levels of Columbus, Ohio, USA, streams (low, 0.1–0.5 lux; moderate, 0.6–2.0 lux; high, 2.1–4.0 lux). In August 2011, we experimentally increased light levels at the low- and moderate-treatment reaches to 10–12 lux to represent urban streams exposed to extremely high levels of ELP. Although season exerted the dominant influence on invertebrate fluxes over the course of the year, when analyzed by season, we found that light strongly influenced multiple invertebrate responses. The experimental light addition resulted in a 44% decrease in tetragnathid spider density (P = 0.035), decreases of 16% in family richness (P = 0.040) and 76% in mean body size (P = 0.022) of aquatic emergent insects, and a 309% increase in mean body size of terrestrial arthropods (P = 0.015). Our results provide evidence that artificial light sources can alter community structure and ecosystem function in streams via changes in reciprocal aquatic–terrestrial fluxes of invertebrates.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1051-0761 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 102  
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Author Bramm, M.E.; Lassen, M.K.; Liboriussen, L.; Richardson, K.; Ventura, M.; Jeppesen, E. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The role of light for fish-zooplankton-phytoplankton interactions during winter in shallow lakes – a climate change perspective Type Journal Article
  Year 2009 Publication Freshwater Biology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 54 Issue 5 Pages 1093-1109  
  Keywords ood availability; global warming; light manipulation; zooplanktivorous fish; zooplankton community structure  
  Abstract 1. Variations in the light regime can affect the availability and quality of food for zooplankton grazers as well as their exposure to fish predation. In northern lakes light is particularly low in winter and, with increasing warming, the northern limit of some present-day plankton communities may move further north and the plankton will thus receive less winter light.

2.&#8194;We followed the changes in the biomass and community structure of zooplankton and phytoplankton in a clear and a turbid shallow lake during winter (November–March) in enclosures both with and without fish and with four different light treatments (100%, 55%, 7% and <1% of incoming light).

3.&#8194;In both lakes total zooplankton biomass and chlorophyll-a were influenced by light availability and the presence of fish. Presence of fish irrespective of the light level led to low crustacean biomass, high rotifer biomass and changes in the life history of copepods. The strength of the fish effect on zooplankton biomass diminished with declining light and the effect of light was strongest in the presence of fish.

4.&#8194;When fish were present, reduced light led to a shift from rotifers to calanoid copepods in the clear lake and from rotifers to cyclopoid copepods in the turbid lake. Light affected the phytoplankton biomass and, to a lesser extent, the phytoplankton community composition and size. However, the fish effect on phytoplankton was overall weak.

5.&#8194;Our results from typical Danish shallow eutrophic lakes suggest that major changes in winter light conditions are needed in order to have a significant effect on the plankton community. The change in light occurring when such plankton communities move northwards in response to global warming will mostly be of modest importance for this lake type, at least for the rest of this century in an IPCC A2 scenario, while stronger effects may be observed in deep lakes.
 
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0046-5070 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 106  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Perkin, E.K.; Hölker, F.; Tockner, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of artificial lighting on adult aquatic and terrestrial insects Type Journal Article
  Year 2014 Publication Freshwater Biology Abbreviated Journal Freshw Biol  
  Volume 59 Issue 2 Pages 368-377  
  Keywords biodiversity; connectivity; dispersal; high-pressure sodium lamp; light pollution; river  
  Abstract There is a growing concern that artificial light might affect local insect populations and disrupt their dispersal across the landscape. In this study, we investigated experimentally the effect of artificial light on flying insects in the field, with an emphasis on aquatic insects. We asked whether lights prevented the ability of insects to disperse across the landscape, a process that is crucial in colonising restored habitats.

We set up six, c. 3.5 m high downward facing high-pressure sodium streetlights along a permanently connected oxbow in the Spree River of eastern Germany. We collected insects using 12 flight intercept traps, each with trays at three different heights (0.5, 1.5 and 2.5 m), placed at distances 0, 3, 40 and 75 m from the lights and 5, 8 and 80 m from water. The number of emerging aquatic insects in the study area was measured with six emergence traps. We emptied the traps 22 times between June and September 2010; the lights were on for 11 of these nights and off for the other 11.

In total, we caught almost 27 times as many insects at traps 0 m from the lights when the lights were on than when they were off. Most insects caught when the lights were on were aquatic, with Diptera being the most common order. Furthermore, the proportion of aquatic insects caught at traps 0, 3 and 40 m from the lights when they were on was significantly higher than when they were off. On lit nights, more aquatic insects were captured per hour and m2 (area in which flying insects were intercepted) at traps 0 m from the lights than emerged from per square metre per hour from the Spree River.

Our results suggest that adult aquatic insects can be negatively affected by artificial light and that city planners should take this into account when designing lighting systems along rivers.
 
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  Publisher (up) Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0046-5070 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 107  
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