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Author Foster, R.G.
Title Neurobiology: bright blue times Type Journal Article
Year 2005 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume (down) 433 Issue 7027 Pages 698-699
Keywords Human Health; Animals; Circadian Rhythm/physiology/radiation effects; Color Perception/physiology/*radiation effects; Humans; *Light; Light Signal Transduction/*radiation effects; Mice; Retinal Ganglion Cells/cytology/physiology/radiation effects; Retinaldehyde/chemistry/metabolism; Rod Opsins/*metabolism; NASA Discipline Space Human Factors; Non-NASA Center
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
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Notes PMID:15716938 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 750
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.
Title The propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume (down) 427 Issue 4 Pages 3337-3357
Keywords radiative transfer; scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; site testing; light at night; Garstang model; LPTRAN; DMSP-OLS; GTOPO30; modeling; propagation
Abstract Recent methods to map artificial night-sky brightness and stellar visibility across large territories or their distribution over the entire sky at any site are based on computation of the propagation of light pollution with Garstang models, a simplified solution of the radiative transfer problem in the atmosphere that allows fast computation by reducing it to a ray-tracing approach. They are accurate for a clear atmosphere, when a two-scattering approximation is acceptable, which is the most common situation. We present here up-to-date extended Garstang models (EGM), which provide a more general numerical solution for the radiative transfer problem applied to the propagation of light pollution in the atmosphere. We also present the LPTRAN software package, an application of EGM to high-resolution Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) satellite measurements of artificial light emission and to GTOPO30 (Global 30 Arcsecond) digital elevation data, which provides an up-to-date method to predict the artificial brightness distribution of the night sky at any site in the world at any visible wavelength for a broad range of atmospheric situations and the artificial radiation density in the atmosphere across the territory. EGM account for (i) multiple scattering, (ii) wavelengths from 250 nm to infrared, (iii) the Earth's curvature and its screening effects, (iv) site and source elevation, (v) many kinds of atmosphere with the possibility of custom set-up (e.g. including thermal inversion layers), (vi) a mix of different boundary-layer aerosols and tropospheric aerosols, with the possibility of custom set-up, (vii) up to five aerosol layers in the upper atmosphere, including fresh and aged volcanic dust and meteoric dust, (viii) variations of the scattering phase function with elevation, (ix) continuum and line gas absorption from many species, ozone included, (x) up to five cloud layers, (xi) wavelength-dependent bidirectional reflectance of the ground surface from National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite data, main models or custom data (snow included) and (xii) geographically variable upward light-emission function given as a three-parameter function or a Legendre polynomial series. Atmospheric scattering properties or light-pollution propagation functions from other sources can also be applied. A more general solution allows us to account also for (xiii) mountain screening, (xiv) geographical gradients of atmospheric conditions, including localized clouds and (xv) geographic distribution of ground surfaces, but suffers from too heavy computational requirements. Comparisons between predictions of classic Garstang models and EGM show close agreement for a US62 standard clear atmosphere and typical upward emission function.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 271
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Author Kyba, C.C.M.; Ruhtz, T.; Fischer, J.; Hölker, F.
Title Red is the new black: how the colour of urban skyglow varies with cloud cover Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
Volume (down) 425 Issue 1 Pages 701-708
Keywords Keywords: skyglow; radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; instrumentation: detectors; light pollution
Abstract The development of street lamps based on solid-state lighting technology is likely to introduce a major change in the colour of urban skyglow (one form of light pollution). We demonstrate the need for long-term monitoring of this trend by reviewing the influences it is likely to have on disparate fields. We describe a prototype detector which is able to monitor these changes, and could be produced at a cost low enough to allow extremely widespread use. Using the detector, we observed the differences in skyglow radiance in red, green and blue channels. We find that clouds increase the radiance of red light by a factor of 17.6, which is much larger than that for blue (7.1). We also find that the gradual decrease in sky radiance observed on clear nights in Berlin appears to be most pronounced at longer wavelengths.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
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Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 272
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Author Dacke, M.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Scholtz, C.H.; Byrne, M.; Warrant, E.J.
Title Animal behaviour: insect orientation to polarized moonlight Type Journal Article
Year 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature
Volume (down) 424 Issue 6944 Pages 33
Keywords Adaptation, Physiological/physiology; Animals; Beetles/*physiology; Feces; Feeding Behavior/physiology; *Light; Locomotion/*physiology; *Moon; Orientation/*physiology; Scarabaeus zambesianus
Abstract Moonlight, like sunlight, scatters when it strikes tiny particles in the atmosphere, giving rise to celestial polarization patterns. Here we show that an African dung beetle, Scarabaeus zambesianus, uses the polarization of a moonlit sky to orientate itself so that it can move along a straight line. Many creatures use the Sun's light-polarization pattern to orientate themselves, but S. zambesianus is the first animal known to use the million-times dimmer polarization of moonlight for this purpose.
Address Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@cob.lu.se
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Language English Summary Language Original Title
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ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:12840748 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 242
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Author Aubé, M.; Kocifaj, M.
Title Using two light-pollution models to investigate artificial sky radiances at Canary Islands observatories: Light-pollution models and artificial sky radiances Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal
Volume (down) 422 Issue 1 Pages 819-830
Keywords Keywords: radiative transfer; atmospheric effects; light pollution; methods: observational; site testing
Abstract Astronomical observations are increasingly limited by light pollution, which is a product of the over-illumination of the night sky. To predict both the angular distribution of scattered light and the ground-reaching radiative fluxes, a set of models has been introduced in recent decades. Two distinct numerical tools, MSNsRAu and ILLUMINA, are compared in this paper, with the aim of identifying their strengths and weaknesses. The numerical experiment comprises the simulation of spectral radiances in the region of the Canary Islands. In particular, the light fields near the Roque de los Muchachos and Teide observatories are computed under various turbidity conditions. It is shown that ILLUMINA has enhanced accuracy at low elevation angles. However, ILLUMINA is time-consuming because of the two scattering orders incorporated into the calculation scheme. Under low-turbidity conditions and for zenith angles smaller than 70° the two models agree well, and thus can be successfully applied to typical cloudless situations at the majority of observatories. MSNsRAu is well optimized for large-scale simulations. In particular, the grid size is adapted dynamically depending on the distance between a light source and a hypothetical observer. This enables rapid numerical modelling for large territories. MSNsRAu is also well suited for the mass modelling of night-sky radiances after ground-based light sources are hypothetically changed. This enables an optimum design of public lighting systems and a time-efficient evaluation of the optical effects related to different lamp spectra or different lamp distributions. ILLUMINA provides two diagnostic geographical maps to help local authorities concerned about light-pollution control. The first map allows the identification of the relative contribution of each ground element to the observed sky radiance at a given viewing angle, while the second map gives the sensitivity, basically saying how each ground element contributes per lumen installed.
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ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 256
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