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Author Ruger, M.; Gordijn, M.C.M.; Beersma, D.G.M.; de Vries, B.; Daan, S. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Time-of-day-dependent effects of bright light exposure on human psychophysiology: comparison of daytime and nighttime exposure Type Journal Article
  Year 2006 Publication American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology Abbreviated Journal Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol  
  Volume (down) 290 Issue 5 Pages R1413-20  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Body Temperature/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Fatigue/*physiopathology; Heart Rate/*physiology; Humans; Hydrocortisone/*blood; *Light; Sleep Stages/*physiology  
  Abstract Bright light can influence human psychophysiology instantaneously by inducing endocrine (suppression of melatonin, increasing cortisol levels), other physiological changes (enhancement of core body temperature), and psychological changes (reduction of sleepiness, increase of alertness). Its broad range of action is reflected in the wide field of applications, ranging from optimizing a work environment to treating depressed patients. For optimally applying bright light and understanding its mechanism, it is crucial to know whether its effects depend on the time of day. In this paper, we report the effects of bright light given at two different times of day on psychological and physiological parameters. Twenty-four subjects participated in two experiments (n = 12 each). All subjects were nonsmoking, healthy young males (18-30 yr). In both experiments, subjects were exposed to either bright light (5,000 lux) or dim light <10 lux (control condition) either between 12:00 P.M. and 4:00 P.M. (experiment A) or between midnight and 4:00 A.M. (experiment B). Hourly measurements included salivary cortisol concentrations, electrocardiogram, sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), fatigue, and energy ratings (Visual Analog Scale). Core body temperature was measured continuously throughout the experiments. Bright light had a time-dependent effect on heart rate and core body temperature; i.e., bright light exposure at night, but not in daytime, increased heart rate and enhanced core body temperature. It had no significant effect at all on cortisol. The effect of bright light on the psychological variables was time independent, since nighttime and daytime bright light reduced sleepiness and fatigue significantly and similarly.  
  Address Department of Chronobiology, University of Groningen, The Netherlands. Melanie.Rueger@med.nyu.edu  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0363-6119 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:16373441 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 801  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Batra, T.; Malik, I.; Prabhat, A.; Bhardwaj, S.K.; Kumar, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Sleep in unnatural times: illuminated night negatively affects sleep and associated hypothalamic gene expressions in diurnal zebra finches Type Journal Article
  Year 2020 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume (down) 287 Issue 1928 Pages 20192952  
  Keywords Animals; bird; dim light at night; gene expression; hypothalamus; sleep; zebra finch  
  Abstract We investigated the effects of exposure at ecologically relevant levels of dim light at night (dLAN) on sleep and the 24 h hypothalamic expression pattern of genes involved in the circadian timing (per2, bmal1, reverb-beta, cry1, ror-alpha, clock) and sleep regulatory pathways (cytokines: tlr4, tnf-alpha, il-1beta, nos; Ca(2+)-dependent pathway: camk2, sik3, nr3a; cholinergic receptor, achm3) in diurnal female zebra finches. Birds were exposed to 12 h light (150 lux) coupled with 12 h of absolute darkness or of 5 lux dim light for three weeks. dLAN fragmented the nocturnal sleep in reduced bouts, and caused sleep loss as evidenced by reduced plasma oxalate levels. Under dLAN, the 24 h rhythm of per2, but not bmal1 or reverb-beta, showed a reduced amplitude and altered peak expression time; however, clock, ror-alpha and cry1 expressions showed an abolition of the 24 h rhythm. Decreased tlr4, il-1beta and nos, and the lack of diurnal difference in achm3 messenger RNA levels suggested an attenuated inhibition of the arousal system (hence, awake state promotion) under dLAN. Similarly, changes in camk2, sik3 and nr3a expressions suggested dLAN-effects on Ca(2+)-dependent sleep-inducing pathways. These results demonstrate dLAN-induced negative effects on sleep and associated hypothalamic molecular pathways, and provide insights into health risks of illuminated night exposures to diurnal animals.  
  Address Department of Zoology, University of Delhi, Delhi 110 007, India  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:32517617 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2995  
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Author Kernbach, M.E.; Newhouse, D.J.; Miller, J.M.; Hall, R.J.; Gibbons, J.; Oberstaller, J.; Selechnik, D.; Jiang, R.H.Y.; Unnasch, T.R.; Balakrishnan, C.N.; Martin, L.B. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution increases West Nile virus competence of a ubiquitous passerine reservoir species Type Journal Article
  Year 2019 Publication Proceedings. Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Biol Sci  
  Volume (down) 286 Issue 1907 Pages 20191051  
  Keywords Animals; Human Health; anthropogenic; ecoimmunology; host competence; light pollution; reservoir host  
  Abstract Among the many anthropogenic changes that impact humans and wildlife, one of the most pervasive but least understood is light pollution. Although detrimental physiological and behavioural effects resulting from exposure to light at night are widely appreciated, the impacts of light pollution on infectious disease risk have not been studied. Here, we demonstrate that artificial light at night (ALAN) extends the infectious-to-vector period of the house sparrow (Passer domesticus), an urban-dwelling avian reservoir host of West Nile virus (WNV). Sparrows exposed to ALAN maintained transmissible viral titres for 2 days longer than controls but did not experience greater WNV-induced mortality during this window. Transcriptionally, ALAN altered the expression of gene regulatory networks including key hubs (OASL, PLBD1 and TRAP1) and effector genes known to affect WNV dissemination (SOCS). Despite mounting anti-viral immune responses earlier, transcriptomic signatures indicated that ALAN-exposed individuals probably experienced pathogen-induced damage and immunopathology, potentially due to evasion of immune effectors. A simple mathematical modelling exercise indicated that ALAN-induced increases of host infectious-to-vector period could increase WNV outbreak potential by approximately 41%. ALAN probably affects other host and vector traits relevant to transmission, and additional research is needed to advise the management of zoonotic diseases in light-polluted areas.  
  Address Center for Global Health Infectious Disease Research, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL 33620, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 0962-8452 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:31337318; PMCID:PMC6661335 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2611  
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Author Polak, T.; Korine, C.; Yair, S.; Holderied, M.W. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Differential effects of artificial lighting on flight and foraging behaviour of two sympatric bat species in a desert: Light pollution in deserts and bat foraging Type Journal Article
  Year 2011 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume (down) 285 Issue 1 Pages 21-27  
  Keywords ight pollution; desert bats; Eptesicus bottae; flight behaviour; Pipistrellus kuhlii; animals; mammals; bats  
  Abstract Human habitation in deserts can create rich novel resources that may be used by native desert species. However, at night such resources may lose attractiveness when they are in artificially lit areas. For bats, attraction to such manmade habitats might be species specific. In an isolated village in the Negev desert that is known for its high bat activity we investigated the effects of artificial lighting on flight behaviour of two aerial insectivorous bat species: Pipistrellus kuhlii, a non-desert synanthropic bat, common in urban environments and Eptesicus bottae, a desert-dwelling species. Using an acoustic tracking system we reconstructed flight trajectories for bats that flew under artificial lights [Light treatment (L)] versus in natural darkness [Dark treatment (D)]. Under L both P. kuhlii and E. bottae flew significantly faster than under D. Under L, P. kuhlii also flew at significantly lower altitude (i.e. away from a floodlight) than under D. Whereas P. kuhlii foraged both in L and D, E. bottae only foraged in D. In L, activity of E. bottae decreased and it merely transited the illuminated area at commuting rather than foraging speed. Thus, under artificially lighted conditions the non-desert synanthropic species may have a competitive advantage over the native desert species and may outcompete it for aerial insect prey. Controlling light pollution in deserts and keeping important foraging sites unlit may reduce the synanthropic species' competitive advantage over native desert bats.  
  Address  
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  ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 99  
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Author ffrench-Constant, R.; Somers-Yeates, R.; Bennie, J.; Economou, T.; Hodgson, D.; Spalding, A.; McGregor, P. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution is associated with earlier tree budburst across the United Kingdom Type Journal Article
  Year 2016 Publication Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences Abbreviated Journal Proc Roy Soc B Biol Sci  
  Volume (down) 283 Issue 1833 Pages 1-9  
  Keywords Plants; light pollution, phenology, species interactions, tree budburst, temperature, urban heat islands; United Kingdom  
  Abstract The ecological impact of night-time lighting is of concern because of its well-demonstrated effects on animal behaviour. However, the potential of light pollution to change plant phenology and its corresponding knock-on effects on associated herbivores are less clear. Here, we test if artificial lighting can advance the timing of budburst in trees. We took a UK-wide 13 year dataset of spatially referenced budburst data from four deciduous tree species and matched it with both satellite imagery of night-time lighting and average spring temperature. We find that budburst occurs up to 7.5 days earlier in brighter areas, with the relationship being more pronounced for later-budding species. Excluding large urban areas from the analysis showed an even more pronounced advance of budburst, confirming that the urban ‘heat-island’ effect is not the sole cause of earlier urban budburst. Similarly, the advance in budburst across all sites is too large to be explained by increases in temperature alone. This dramatic advance of budburst illustrates the need for further experimental investigation into the impact of artificial night-time lighting on plant phenology and subsequent species interactions. As light pollution is a growing global phenomenon, the findings of this study are likely to be applicable to a wide range of species interactions across the world.  
  Address Centre for Ecology and Conservation, and 2 Environment and Sustainability Institute, University of Exeter, Penryn TR10 9EZ, UK; rf222(at)exeter.ac.uk  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Royal Society Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1472  
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