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Author de Meester, J.; Storch, T.
Title Optimized Performance Parameters for Nighttime Multispectral Satellite Imagery to Analyze Lightings in Urban Areas Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Sensors (Basel, Switzerland) Abbreviated Journal Sensors (Basel)
Volume 20 Issue 11 Pages
Keywords Instrumentation; Remote Sensing; high spatial resolution; lighting parameter; lighting type classification; multispectral band optimization; nighttime remote sensing; satellite image simulation; urban area
Abstract Contrary to its daytime counterpart, nighttime visible and near infrared (VIS/NIR) satellite imagery is limited in both spectral and spatial resolution. Nevertheless, the relevance of such systems is unquestioned with applications to, e.g., examine urban areas, derive light pollution, and estimate energy consumption. To determine optimal spectral bands together with required radiometric and spatial resolution, at-sensor radiances are simulated based on combinations of lamp spectra with typical luminances according to lighting standards, surface reflectances, and radiative transfers for the consideration of atmospheric effects. Various band combinations are evaluated for their ability to differentiate between lighting types and to estimate the important lighting parameters: efficacy to produce visible light, percentage of emissions attributable to the blue part of the spectrum, and assessment of the perceived color of radiation sources. The selected bands are located in the green, blue, yellow-orange, near infrared, and red parts of the spectrum and include one panchromatic band. However, these nighttime bands tailored to artificial light emissions differ significantly from the typical daytime bands focusing on surface reflectances. Compared to existing or proposed nighttime or daytime satellites, the recommended characteristics improve, e.g., classification of lighting types by >10%. The simulations illustrate the feasible improvements in nocturnal VIS/NIR remote sensing which will lead to advanced applications.
Address German Aerospace Center (DLR), Earth Observation Center (EOC), Munchener Str. 20, 82234 Wessling, Germany
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1424-8220 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32532117 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3006
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Author Moore-Ede, M.; Heitmann, A.; Guttkuhn, R.
Title Circadian Potency Spectrum with Extended Exposure to Polychromatic White LED Light under Workplace Conditions Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Human Health; circadian; human; light spectrum; melatonin; spectral sensitivity
Abstract Electric light has enabled humans to conquer the night, but light exposure at night can disrupt the circadian timing system and is associated with a diverse range of health disorders. To provide adequate lighting for visual tasks without disrupting the human circadian timing system, a precise definition of circadian spectral sensitivity is required. Prior attempts to define the circadian spectral sensitivity curve have used short (</=90-min) monochromatic light exposures in dark-adapted human subjects or in vitro dark-adapted isolated retina or melanopsin. Several lines of evidence suggest that these dark-adapted circadian spectral sensitivity curves, in addition to 430- to 499-nm (blue) wavelength sensitivity, may include transient 400- to 429-nm (violet) and 500- to 560-nm (green) components mediated by cone- and rod-originated extrinsic inputs to intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which decay over the first 2 h of extended light exposure. To test the hypothesis that the human circadian spectral sensitivity in light-adapted conditions may have a narrower, predominantly blue, sensitivity, we used 12-h continuous exposures of light-adapted healthy human subjects to 6 polychromatic white light-emitting diode (LED) light sources with diverse spectral power distributions at recommended workplace levels of illumination (540 lux) to determine their effect on the area under curve of the overnight (2000-0800 h) salivary melatonin. We derived a narrow steady-state human Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity curve with a peak at 477 nm and a full-width half-maximum of 438 to 493 nm. This light-adapted Circadian Potency spectral sensitivity permits the development of spectrally engineered LED light sources to minimize circadian disruption and address the health risks of light exposure at night in our 24/7 society, by alternating between daytime circadian stimulatory white light spectra and nocturnal circadian protective white light spectra.
Address Data Analytics Department, Circadian Technologies, Inc., Stoneham, Massachusetts
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32539484 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3010
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Author Hart, E.E.; Fennessy, J.; Hauenstein, S.; Ciuti, S.
Title Intensity of giraffe locomotor activity is shaped by solar and lunar zeitgebers Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Behavioural Processes Abbreviated Journal Behav Processes
Volume in press Issue Pages in press
Keywords Moonlight; Animals
Abstract Natural cycles of light and darkness shift the balance of risks and gains for animals across space and time. Entrainment to photic cycles allows animals to spatiotemporally adapt their behavioural and physiological processes in line with interplaying ecological factors, such as temperature, foraging efficiency and predation risk. Until recently, our understanding of these chronobiological processes was limited by the difficulties of 24 hr observations. Technological advances in GPS biotelemetry however are now allowing us unprecedented access to long-term, fine-scale activity data. Here we use data derived from frontline technology to present the first large-scale investigation into the effects of natural fluctuations of light and darkness on the locomotor activity patterns of a threatened African mega-herbivore, the giraffe (Giraffa spp.). Using data from a remote population of Angolan giraffe (G. g. angolensis) in the northern Namib Desert, Namibia, we reveal the first full picture of giraffe chronobiology in a landscape of fear. Furthermore, we present clear evidence of the effect of moonlight on the nocturnal activity patterns of large ungulates. Our results are in line with recent research demonstrating that, rather than a fixed internal representation of time (circadian clock), many surface-dwelling ungulates have plastic activity patterns that are vulnerable to modification by external factors including light and temperature. Relatedly, we highlight important conservation management implications of rising temperatures and increasing light pollution on the chronobiology of surface-dwelling mammals.
Address Laboratory of Wildlife Ecology and Behaviour, School of Biology and Environmental Science, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0376-6357 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32562740 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3013
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Author Rydell, J.; Elfstrom, M.; Eklof, J.; Sanchez-Navarro, S.
Title Dramatic decline of northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii in Sweden over 30 years Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Royal Society Open Science Abbreviated Journal R Soc Open Sci
Volume 7 Issue 2 Pages 191754
Keywords Animals; Lepidoptera; climate change; light pollution; line transects; long-term monitoring; population decline
Abstract We monitored northern bat Eptesicus nilssonii (Keyserling & Blasius, 1839) acoustically along a 27 km road transect at weekly intervals in 1988, 1989 and 1990, and again in 2016 and 2017. The methodology of data collection and the transect were the same throughout, except that the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights along parts of the road were replaced by sodium lights between the two survey periods. Counts along sections of the transect with and without street-lights were analysed separately. The frequency of bat encounters in unlit sections showed an average decline of 3.0% per year, corresponding to a reduction of 59% between 1988 and 2017. Sections with street-lights showed an 85% decline over the same period (6.3% per year). The decline represents a real reduction in the abundance of bats rather than an artefact of changed distribution of bats away from roads. Our study conforms with another long-term survey of the same species on the Baltic island of Gotland. Our results agree with predictions based on climate change models. They also indicate that the decline was caused directly by the disuse of the insect-attracting mercury-vapour street-lights, which may have resulted in lower availability of preferred prey (moths). In the 1980s, E. nilssonii was considered the most common bat in Sweden, but the subsequent decline would rather qualify it for vulnerable or endangered status in the national Red List of Threatened Species.
Address Biology Department, Lund University, 223 62 Lund, Sweden
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 2054-5703 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32257332; PMCID:PMC7062070 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3023
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Author Zhang, D.; Jones, R.R.; Powell-Wiley, T.M.; Jia, P.; James, P.; Xiao, Q.
Title A large prospective investigation of outdoor light at night and obesity in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2020 Publication Environmental Health : a Global Access Science Source Abbreviated Journal Environ Health
Volume 19 Issue 1 Pages 74
Keywords Human Health; Remote Sensing; Circadian rhythms; Light at night; Light pollution; Obesity
Abstract BACKGROUND: Research has suggested that artificial light at night (LAN) may disrupt circadian rhythms, sleep, and contribute to the development of obesity. However, almost all previous studies are cross-sectional, thus, there is a need for prospective investigations of the association between LAN and obesity risk. The goal of our current study was to examine the association between baseline LAN and the development of obesity over follow-up in a large cohort of American adults. METHODS: The study included a sample of 239,781 men and women (aged 50-71) from the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study who were not obese at baseline (1995-1996). We used multiple logistic regression to examine whether LAN at baseline was associated with the odds of developing obesity at follow-up (2004-2006). Outdoor LAN exposure was estimated from satellite imagery and obesity was measured based on self-reported weight and height. RESULTS: We found that higher outdoor LAN at baseline was associated with higher odds of developing obesity over 10 years. Compared with the lowest quintile of LAN, the highest quintile was associated with 12% and 19% higher odds of developing obesity at follow-up in men (OR (95% CI) = 1.12 (1.00, 1.250)) and women (1.19 (1.04, 1.36)), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that high LAN exposure could predict a higher risk of developing obesity in middle-to-older aged American adults.
Address Department of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Sciences, The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston School of Public Health, Houston, TX, USA
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1476-069X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:32611430; PMCID:PMC7329409 Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3029
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