|   | 
Details
   web
Records
Author Song, J.; Tong, X.; Wang, L.; Zhao, C.; Prishchepov, A.V.
Title Monitoring finer-scale population density in urban functional zones: A remote sensing data fusion approach Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Landscape and Urban Planning Abbreviated Journal Landscape and Urban Planning
Volume 190 Issue Pages 103580
Keywords Remote Sensing; nighttime light; numerical methods
Abstract Spatial distribution information on population density is essential for understanding urban dynamics. In recent decades, remote sensing techniques have often been applied to assess population density, particularly night-time light data (NTL). However, such attempts have resulted in mapped population density at coarse/medium resolution, which often limits the applicability of such data for fine-scale territorial planning. The improved quality and availability of multi-source remote sensing imagery and location-based service data (LBS) (from mobile networks or social media) offers new potential for providing more accurate population information at the micro-scale level. In this paper, we developed a fine-scale population distribution mapping approach by combining the functional zones (FZ) mapped with high-resolution satellite images, NTL data, and LBS data. Considering the possible variations in the relationship between population distribution and nightlight brightness in functional zones, we tested and found spatial heterogeneity of the relationship between NTL and the population density of LBS samples. Geographically weighted regression (GWR) was thus implemented to test potential improvements to the mapping accuracy. The performance of the following four models was evaluated: only ordinary least squares regression (OLS), only GWR, OLS with functional zones (OLS&FZ) and GWR with functional zones (GWR&FZ). The results showed that NTL-based GWR&FZ was the most accurate and robust approach, with an accuracy of 0.71, while the mapped population density was at a unit of 30 m spatial resolution. The detailed population density maps developed in our approach can contribute to fine-scale urban planning, healthcare and emergency responses in many parts of the world.
Address Department of Geosciences and Natural Resource Management, University of Copenhagen, 1350 Copenhagen, Denmark; songjinchao08(at)163.com
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language English Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0169-2046 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2516
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Huang, X., Wang, C., & Lu, J.
Title Understanding Spatiotemporal Development of Human Settlement in Hurricane-prone Areas on U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts using Nighttime Remote Sensing Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences Abbreviated Journal
Volume Issue Pages 1-22
Keywords Remote Sensing; hurricanes; cyclones; Weather; natural disasters; DMSP-OLS; nighttime light; night lights; vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index; VANUI
Abstract Hurricanes, as one of the most devastating natural disasters, have posed great threats to people in coastal areas. A better understanding of spatiotemporal dynamics of human settlement in hurricane-prone areas is demanded for sustainable development. This study uses the DMSP/OLS nighttime light (NTL) data sets from 1992 to 2013 to examine human settlement development in areas with different levels of hurricane proneness. The DMSP/OLS NTL data from six satellites were intercalibrated and desaturated with AVHRR and MODIS optical imagery to derive the vegetation-adjusted NTL urban index (VANUI), a popular index that quantifies human settlement intensity. The derived VANUI time series was examined with the Mann-Kendall test and Theil-Sen test to identify significant spatiotemporal trends. To link the VANUI product to hurricane impacts, four hurricane-prone zones were extracted to represent different levels of hurricane proneness. Aside from geographic division, a wind-speed weighted track density function was developed and applied to historical North Atlantic Basin (NAB)-origin storm tracks to better categorize the four levels of hurricane proneness. Spatiotemporal patterns of human settlement in the four zones were finally analyzed. The results clearly exhibit a north-south and inland-coastal discrepancy of human settlement dynamics. This study also reveals that both the zonal extent and zonal increase rate of human settlement positively correlate with hurricane proneness levels. The intensified human settlement in high hurricane-exposure zones deserves further attention for coastal resilience.
Address Department of Geography, University of South Carolina, Columbia, 29208, U.S.A
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2519
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Phillips, A.J.K.; Vidafar, P.; Burns, A.C.; McGlashan, E.M.; Anderson, C.; Rajaratnam, S.M.W.; Lockley, S.W.; Cain, S.W.
Title High sensitivity and interindividual variability in the response of the human circadian system to evening light Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America Abbreviated Journal Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Volume 116 Issue 24 Pages 12019-12024
Keywords Human Health; circadian rhythms; light sensitivity; circadian disruption; melatonin suppression; evening light
Abstract Before the invention of electric lighting, humans were primarily exposed to intense (>300 lux) or dim (<30 lux) environmental light-stimuli at extreme ends of the circadian system's dose-response curve to light. Today, humans spend hours per day exposed to intermediate light intensities (30-300 lux), particularly in the evening. Interindividual differences in sensitivity to evening light in this intensity range could therefore represent a source of vulnerability to circadian disruption by modern lighting. We characterized individual-level dose-response curves to light-induced melatonin suppression using a within-subjects protocol. Fifty-five participants (aged 18-30) were exposed to a dim control (<1 lux) and a range of experimental light levels (10-2,000 lux for 5 h) in the evening. Melatonin suppression was determined for each light level, and the effective dose for 50% suppression (ED50) was computed at individual and group levels. The group-level fitted ED50 was 24.60 lux, indicating that the circadian system is highly sensitive to evening light at typical indoor levels. Light intensities of 10, 30, and 50 lux resulted in later apparent melatonin onsets by 22, 77, and 109 min, respectively. Individual-level ED50 values ranged by over an order of magnitude (6 lux in the most sensitive individual, 350 lux in the least sensitive individual), with a 26% coefficient of variation. These findings demonstrate that the same evening-light environment is registered by the circadian system very differently between individuals. This interindividual variability may be an important factor for determining the circadian clock's role in human health and disease.
Address Turner Institute for Brain and Mental Health, School of Psychological Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia sean.cain@monash.edu
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0027-8424 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:31138694 Approved no
Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2521
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Wesołowski, M.
Title Impact of light pollution on the visibility of astronomical objects in medium-sized cities in Central Europe on the example of the city of Rzeszów, Poland Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy Abbreviated Journal J Astrophys Astron
Volume 40 Issue 3 Pages 20
Keywords Skyglow; Light pollution; cometary outburst; visibility of astronomical objects
Abstract This paper discusses the influence of light pollution of the night sky on the conditions of visibility of astronomical objects such as planets, stars and comets. This phenomenon has a huge impact on the observability of astronomical objects, especially in cities, where the brightness of the sky makes it difficult or even impossible to conduct astronomical observations. The main purpose of this article is to measure and analyse the surface brightness of the night sky in Rzeszów and its surroundings. A device called the Sky Quality Meter was used to measure the brightness of the night sky. This paper presents measurement results for the years 2015 and 2018, from which it is clear that the quality of the night sky has been deteriorated in terms of the observability of celestial bodies. As an example, the numerical value of the measurement for the centre of Rzeszów has been taken. In 2015, this value was 18.70±1.87 mag/arcsec2, while in 2018, it was equal to 16.73±1.67 mag/arcsec2. The results obtained were used to analyse the visibility of celestial bodies. Here, particular attention was paid to the analysis of the visibility of comets (also during the outburst), in the context of increasing light pollution of the night sky. Observers in neighboring villages have also experienced a change in the sky quality from Bortle Class V to Class VII, requiring objects to be approximately one magnitude brighter in order to be visible.
Address Faculty of Mathematics and Natural SciencesUniversity of Rzeszów, Rzeszów, Poland
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0250-6335 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2529
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Mortazavi, S.A.R.; Faraz, M.; Laalpour, S.; Kaveh Ahangar, A.; Eslami, J.; Zarei, S.; Mortazavi, G.; Gheisari, F.; Mortazavi, S.M.J.
Title Exposure to Blue Light Emitted from Smartphones in an Environment with Dim Light at Night Alters the Reaction Time of University Students Type Journal Article
Year (down) 2019 Publication Shiraz E-Medical Journal Abbreviated Journal Shiraz E-Med J
Volume Issue Pages e88230
Keywords Human Health; Blue light; smartphone; Reaction Time; shift work
Abstract Background: Substantial evidence now indicates that exposure to visible light at night can be linked to a wide spectrum of disorders ranging from obesity to cancer. More specifically, it has been shown that exposure to short wavelengths in the blue region at night is associated with adverse health effects, such as sleep problems.

Objectives: This study aimed at investigating if exposure to blue light emitted from common smartphones in an environment with dim light at night alters human reaction time.

Methods: Visual reaction time (VRT) of 267 male and female university students were recorded using a simple blind computer-assisted VRT test, respectively. Volunteer university students, who provided their informed consent were randomly divided to two groups of control (N = 126 students) and intervention (N = 141 students). All participants were asked to go to bed at 23:00. Participants in the intervention group were asked to use their smartphones from 23:00 to 24:00 (watching a natural life documentary movie for 60 minutes), while the control group only stayed in bed under low lighting condition, i.e. dim light. Before starting the experiment and after 60 minutes of smartphone use, reaction time was recorded in both groups.

Results: The mean reaction times in the intervention and the control groups before the experiment (23:00) did not show a statistically difference (P = 0.449). The reaction time in the intervention group significantly increased from 412.64 ± 105.60 msec at 23:00 to 441.66 ± 125.78 msec at 24:00 (P = 0.0368) while in the control group, there was no statistically significant difference between the mean reaction times at 23:00 and 24:00.

Conclusions: To the best of the author’s knowledge, this is the first study, which showed that exposure to blue-rich visible light emitted from widely used smartphones increases visual reaction time, which would eventually result in a delay in human responses to different hazards. These findings indicate that people, such as night shift or on call workers, who need to react to stresses rapidly should avoid using their smartphones in a dim light at night.
Address Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1735-1391 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2534
Permanent link to this record