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Author Can Duman, A.; Güler, Ö. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Techno-economic analysis of off-grid photovoltaic LED road lighting systems: A case study for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 156 Issue Pages 89-98  
  Keywords Economics; Lighting; off-grid photovoltaic; LED; Turkey  
  Abstract Street lighting is one of the sectors where off-grid energy systems are used, and in the past decade interest in these systems has increased due to recent developments occurred both in LED and PV technology. This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of off-grid PV LED road lighting systems for northern, central and southern regions of Turkey. Road lighting calculations are conducted using DIALux software for M4 and M5 road lighting classes to obtain optimal LED luminaires, pole sizes, and spacings. Among the obtained LED powers, load profiles are created using real lighting hours of operation of the selected regions. And then, the required PV-battery systems are optimized using HOMER software. Finally, sensitivity analysis is performed for future projections considering possible increases in electricity prices and decreases in component cost of the PV systems. The results showed that the levelized COE of the off-grid PV LED road lighting systems vary between 0.229 and 0.362 $/kWh. for M4, and 0.254–0.359 $/kWh for M5 road lighting class, depending on the solar potential of the region. And, the total NPC of the entire lighting installation per km vary between 24296 and 29123 $ for M5, and 33225–44318 $ for M4 road lighting class. According to the results, the systems are infeasible under current conditions in Turkey. Nonetheless, they have the added benefits of contributing to the reduction of CO2 emissions. Moreover, future projections show that the systems can be feasible if the declining trend in PV system costs continues and electricity prices increase.  
  Address Istanbul Technical University, Energy Institute, Ayazaga Campus, 34469, Maslak, Istanbul, Turkey; dumanan(at)itu.edu.tr  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elseiver Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2292  
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Author Jørgensen, L. D., Tambo, T., & Xydis, G. doi  openurl
  Title An efficiency evaluation of radar‐based obstruction lights controlling at a wind turbine test site Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Wind Energy Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages  
  Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning  
  Abstract In this study, an obstruction lights controlling (OLC) system based on a Terma SCANTER 5000 radar has been installed at a test centre for large wind turbines. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of the OLC system and to improve this efficiency by introducing new technological features. Once the first assessment had been carried out, new software with improved tracking functionalities was installed to the radar. With the new software, a second assessment was made to compare the new performance to the old one. To analyse the tracks, geographic information system (GIS) tools have been used. A new MATLAB script was developed to automate the assessment as well as to gather data on the tracks. These data sets were used to improve the system performance by introducing a radar cross section (RCS)/speed filter. The outcome of the study is a filter that can be implemented on the radar system to improve the efficiency of the system and reduce the time that obstruction lights need to be on for by 62.59%, without compromising the integrity of the system.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2298  
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Author Skinner, N., & Bullough, J. doi  openurl
  Title Influence of LED Spectral Characteristics on Glare Recovery Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication SAE Technical Paper 2019-01-0845 Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Vision; Lighting; Public Safety  
  Abstract Headlight glare is a major concern of the driving public. In the past couple of years there have been concerns expressed about the use of light emitting diode (LED) lighting technologies and possible impacts LEDs may have on people, including circadian disruption, retinal hazards, and glare. Under typical use cases, vehicle headlight exposures are insufficient to cause circadian disruption or retinal damage, but can result in disability and discomfort glare, as well as glare recovery. In general, white LEDs used for illumination have greater short-wavelength content than halogen lamps used in many headlights, and short wavelengths have been implicated in visual discomfort from bright lights at night. Previous literature is inconsistent regarding whether the spectral (color) content of a glare source affects the amount of recovery time needed to see objects, following exposure to a bright light such as a vehicle headlight. Warm and cool white LEDs were used as glare sources in the present study. They were energized and exposed to study participants at one of two illuminances (low, high) for either 3 or 6 seconds, after which participants were asked to identify the orientation of a Landolt ring target located on a display screen behind the glare source. Identification times were unaffected by the spectral content of the LED, but were correlated with the “dosage” of light from the glare sources, defined as the product of illuminance and duration. Although cool white LEDs will tend to be judged as creating more discomfort than warm white LEDs, they do not result in longer glare recovery times under the range of conditions used in this study.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2299  
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Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C. doi  openurl
  Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 91  
  Keywords Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban  
  Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.  
  Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302  
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Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J. doi  openurl
  Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems  
  Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.  
  Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306  
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