toggle visibility Search & Display Options

Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print
  Records Links
Author Straka,T. M., Wolf, M., Gras, P., Buchholz, S., & Voigt, C. C. doi  openurl
  Title Tree Cover Mediates the Effect of Artificial Light on Urban Bats Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 7 Issue Pages 91  
  Keywords Animals; ALAN; bats; canopy cover; chiroptera; light-emitting diodes; LED; trees; Ultraviolet; urban  
  Abstract With urban areas growing worldwide, so does artificial light at night (ALAN) which negatively affects many nocturnal animals, including bats. The response of bats to ALAN ranges from some opportunistic species taking advantage of insect aggregations around street lamps, particularly those emitting ultraviolet (UV) light, to others avoiding lit areas at all. Tree cover has been suggested to mitigate the negative effects of ALAN on bats by shielding areas against light scatter. Here, we investigated the effect of tree cover on the relationship between ALAN and bats in Berlin, Germany. In particular, we asked if this interaction varies with the UV light spectrum of street lamps and also across urban bat species. We expected trees next to street lamps to block ALAN, making the adjacent habitat more suitable for all species, irrespective of the wavelength spectrum of the light source. Additionally, we expected UV emitting lights next to trees to attract insects and thus, opportunistic bats. In summer 2017, we recorded bat activity at 22 green open spaces in Berlin using automated ultrasonic detectors. We analyzed bat activity patterns and landscape variables (number of street lamps with and without UV light emission, an estimate of light pollution, and tree cover density around each recording site within different spatial scales) using generalized linear mixed-effects models with a negative binomial distribution. We found a species-specific response of bats to street lamps with and without UV light, providing a more detailed picture of ALAN impacts than simply total light radiance. Moreover, we found that dense tree cover dampened the negative effect of street lamps without UV for open-space foraging bats of the genera Nyctalus, Eptesicus, and Vespertilio, yet it amplified the already existing negative or positive effect of street lamps with or without UV on Pipistrellus pipistrellus, P. pygmaeus, and Myotis spp. Our study underpins the importance of minimizing artificial light at night close to vegetation, particularly for bats adapted to spatial complexity in the environment (i.e., clutter-adapted species), and to increase dense vegetation in urban landscape to provide, besides roosting opportunities, protection against ALAN for open-space foraging bats in city landscapes.  
  Address Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2302  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Seymoure, B. M., Linares, C., & White, J. doi  openurl
  Title Connecting spectral radiometry of anthropogenic light sources to the visual ecology of organisms Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 308 Issue 2 Pages 93-110  
  Keywords Animals; Ecology; color space; ecological consequences; just noticeable difference; light pollution; photoreceptors; radiance; visual models; visual systems  
  Abstract Humans have drastically altered nocturnal environments with electric lighting. Animals depend on natural night light conditions and are now being inundated with artificial lighting. There are numerous artificial light sources that differ in spectral composition that should affect the perception of these light sources and due to differences in animal visual systems, the differences in color perception of these anthropogenic light sources should vary significantly. The ecological and evolutionary ramifications of these perceptual differences of light sources remain understudied. Here, we quantify the radiance of nine different street lights comprised of four different light sources: Metal Halide, Mercury Vapor, Light Emitting Diodes, and High‐Pressure Sodium and model how five animal visual systems will be stimulated by these light sources. We calculated the number of photons that photoreceptors in different visual systems would detect. We selected five visual systems: avian UV/VIS, avian V/VIS, human, wolf and hawk moth. We included non‐visual photoreceptors of vertebrates known for controlling circadian rhythms and other physiological traits. The nine light types stimulated visual systems and the photoreceptors within the visual systems differently. Furthermore, we modelled the chromatic contrast (Just Noticeable Differences [JNDs]) and color space overlap for each light type comparison for each visual system to see if organisms would perceive the lights as different colors. The JNDs of most light type comparisons were very high, indicating most visual systems would detect all light types as different colors, however mammalian visual systems would perceive many lights as the same color. We discuss the importance of understanding not only the brightness of artificial light types, but also the spectral composition of light types, as most organisms have different visual systems from humans. Thus, for researchers to understand how artificial light sources affect the visual environment of specific organisms and thus mitigate the effects, spectral information is crucial.  
  Address Department of Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USA; brett.seymoure(at)gmail.com  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher ZSL Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2306  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Fan, J., He, H., Hu, T., Zhang, P., Yu, X., & Zhou, Y. doi  openurl
  Title Estimation of Landscape Pattern Changes in BRICS from 1992 to 2013 Using DMSP-OLS NTL Images Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Journal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal J Ind Soc Rem Sens  
  Volume 47 Issue 5 Pages 725–735  
  Keywords Remote Sensing; BRICS; Brazil; India; China; South Africa; nighttime light; night lights; DMSP-OLS  
  Abstract Nighttime light data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program’s Operational Linescan System are widely used for monitoring urbanization development. Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) countries have global economic and cultural influence in the new era. It was the first time for the researches about BRICS countries adopting nighttime light data to analyze the urbanization process. In this paper, we calibrated and extracted annual urbanized area patches from cities in BRICS based on a quadratic polynomial model. Nine landscape indexes were calculated to analyze urbanization process characteristics in BRICS. The results suggested that China and India both expanded more rapidly than other countries, with urban areas that increased by more than 100%. The expansion of large core cities was dominant in the urbanization of China, while emerging and expanding small urban patches were major forces in the urbanization of India. Since 1992, urbanization declined and urban areas shrunk in Russia, but core cities still maintained strength of urbanization. Due to economic recovery, urban areas near large cities in Russia began to expand. From 1992 to 2013, the urbanization process in South Africa developed slowly, as evidenced by time series fluctuations, but overall the development remained stable. The degree of urbanization in Brazil was greater than that in South Africa but less than that in Russia. Large-sized cities expanded slowly and small-sized cities clearly expanded in BRICS from 1992 to 2013.  
  Address School of Civil and Architectural Engineering,Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China; anjf(at)sdut.edu.cn  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Springer Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ intern @ Serial 2307  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Bapary, M.A.J.; Takano, J.-I.; Soma, S.; Sankai, T. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Effect of blue LED light and antioxidants potential in a somatic cell Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Cell Biology International Abbreviated Journal Cell Biol Int  
  Volume 43 Issue 11 Pages 1296-1306  
  Keywords Cells; Biology; LED; blue light; Antioxidants; cell death  
  Abstract Light is an indispensable part of routine laboratory works in which conventional light is generally used. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) have come to replace the conventional light thus could be a potent target in biomedical studies. Since blue light is a major component of visible light wavelength, in this study, using a somatic cell from African green monkey kidney, we assessed the possible consequences of blue spectra of LED light in future animal experiments and proposed a potent mitigation against light induced damages. COS-7 cells were exposed to blue LED light (450 nm) and the growth and DNA damage were assessed at different exposure times. A higher suppression in cell growth and viability was observed under a longer period of blue LED light exposure. The number of apoptotic cells increased as light exposure time was prolonged. Reactive oxygen species generation was also elevated in accordance to the extension of light exposure times. A comparison to dark-maintained cells revealed that the upregulation of ROS by blue LED light plays a significant role in causing cellular dysfunction in DNA in a time-dependent manner. In turn, antioxidant treatment has shown to improve the cell growth and viability under blue LED light conditions. This indicates that antioxidants are potential against blue LED light-induced somatic cell damage. It is expected that this study will contribute to the understanding of the basic mechanism of somatic cell death under visible light and to maximize the beneficial use of LED light in future animal experiments.  
  Address Tsukuba Primate Research Center, National Institutes of Biomedical Innovation, Health and Nutrition, Ibaraki, Japan  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1065-6995 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:30958611 Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2328  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Markvica, K.; Richter, G.; Lenz, G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Impact of urban street lighting on road users’ perception of public space and mobility behavior Type Journal Article
  Year (down) 2019 Publication Building and Environment Abbreviated Journal Building and Environment  
  Volume 154 Issue Pages 32-43  
  Keywords Lighting; Psychology  
  Abstract Refitting public spaces with light-emitting diode (LED) technology in lieu of conventional luminaires bears the risk of compromising lighting quality that road users have already adapted to; this is because the LED technology has been well tested indoors, but it has not been necessarily evaluated outdoors. Further insight into the effects of street lighting on road users is necessary to resolve potential deficiencies of available technologies. This study compares the effects of three different lighting scenarios (conventional lighting, state-of-the-art LED, optimized LED) on road users via surveys (N = 598 persons) and observations (N = 1341 persons) in the city of Vienna. In terms of the uniformity of street illumination and the comfort it provides, the results show the positive effects of LED street lighting both on surveyed pedestrians and vehicle drivers. The observations of pedestrian walking behavior revealed an unexpected result—no significant differences were noted apart from a more centric walking path along the sidewalk under LED illumination, particularly with the optimized LED luminaire.  
  Address  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Place of Publication Editor  
  Language Summary Language Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0360-1323 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2335  
Permanent link to this record
Select All    Deselect All
 |   | 
Details
   print

Save Citations:
Export Records: