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Author He, Y.; Rea, M.; Bierman, A.; Bullough, J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Evaluating Light Source Efficacy under Mesopic Conditions Using Reaction Times Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1997 Publication Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society Abbreviated Journal Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society  
  Volume 26 Issue 1 Pages 125-138  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract  
  Address  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0099-4480 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 634  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Cinzano, P.; Javier, F.; Castro, D.; Astronomia, D.; Padova, U. url  openurl
  Title The artificial sky luminance and the emission angles of the upward light flux. Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1998 Publication arXiv preprint astro-ph Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue Pages  
  Keywords Lighting  
  Abstract The direction of the upward light emission has different polluting effects on the sky depending on the distance of the observation site. We studied with detailed models for light pollution propagation the ratio (bH)/(bL), at given distances from a city, between the artificial sky luminance bH produced by its upward light emission between a given threshold angle θ0 and the vertical and the artificial sky luminance bL produced by its upward light emission between the horizontal and the threshold angle θ0. Our results show that as the distance from the city increases the effects of the emission at high angles above the horizontal decrease relative to the effects of emission at lower angles above the horizontal. Outside some kilometers from cities or towns the light emitted between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is as important as the light emitted at all the other angles in producing the artificial sky luminance. Therefore the protection of a site requires also a careful control of this emission which needs to be reduced to at most 1/10 of the remaining emission. The emission between the horizontal and 10\deg ~is mostly produced by spill light from luminaires, so fully shielded fixtures (e.g. flat glass luminaires or asymmetric spot-lights installed without any tilt) are needed for this purpose.  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 575  
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Author Benn, C.R.; Ellison, S.L. url  openurl
  Title La Palma night-sky brightness Type Report
  Year (up) 1998 Publication La Palma Technical Reports Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume Issue 115 Pages  
  Keywords Skyglow; solar cycle; airglow; zodiacal light; light pollution; observatories; *Light  
  Abstract The brightness of the moonless night sky above La Palma was measured on 427 CCD images taken with the Isaac Newton and Jacobus Kapteyn Telescopes on 63 nights during 1987 – 1996. The median sky brightness at high elevation, high galactic latitude and high ecliptic latitude, at sunspot minimum, is B = 22.7, V = 21.9, R = 21.0, similar to that at other dark sites. The main contributions to sky brightness are airglow and zodiacal light. The sky is brighter at low ecliptic latitude (by 0.4 mag); at solar maximum (by 0.4 mag); and at high airmass (0.25 mag brighter at airmass 1.5). Light pollution (line + continuum) contributes < 0.03 mag in U, approximately 0.02 mag in B, approximately 0.10 mag in V, approximately and 0.10 mag in R at the zenith.  
  Address Isaac Newton Group, Apartado 321, 38780 Santa Cruz de La Palma, Spain  
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  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
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  Notes Lots of useful theory on the various contributions to natural sky background level and expected surface brightnesses Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1101  
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Author Topping, M.G.; Millar, J.S.; Goddard, J.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The effects of moonlight on nocturnal activity in bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1999 Publication Canadian Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal Can. J. Zool.  
  Volume 77 Issue 3 Pages 480-485  
  Keywords animals; mammals; rats; bushy-tailed wood rat; Neotoma cinerea; Canada; foraging; reproduction; moonlight; predation risk  
  Abstract The nocturnal activity of bushy-tailed wood rats (Neotoma cinerea) was monitored for two breeding seasons (1993 and 1994) in the Canadian Rockies. Radiotelemetry was used under three levels of moonlight to assess two measures of nocturnal activity: (i) the proportion of animals crossing rocky outcrops and entering the surrounding forest to forage, search for mates, or both, and (ii) the distance moved from the den site while in the forest. Males and females exhibited significant differences among moonlight levels, with greater activity on nights of intermediate-level moonlight and less activity on nights with bright or dark moonlight. There was no difference in the proportions of males and females active at any moonlight level. The distances moved from the den did not differ among moonlight levels for either males or females. Having traversed the rocks and entered the forest, individuals moved similar distances regardless of light level. These results suggest that wood rats respond to moonlight only when making the decision to cross rocks and enter the forest. This behaviour presumably serves to counteract the increased risk of predation on bright nights.  
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  ISSN 0008-4301 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 88  
Permanent link to this record
 

 
Author Moser, J.C.; Reeve, J.D.; Bento, J.M.S.; Della Lucia, T.M.C.; Cameron, R.S.; Heck, N.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Eye size and behaviour of day- and night-flying leafcutting ant alates Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 1999 Publication Journal of Zoology Abbreviated Journal J. Zoology  
  Volume 264 Issue 1 Pages 69-75  
  Keywords Atta; leaf-cutting ants; nuptial flight; compound eye; ocelli; ommatidia; insects  
  Abstract The morphology of insect eyes often seems to be shaped by evolution to match their behaviour and lifestyle. Here the relationship between the nuptial flight behaviour of 10 Atta species (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and the eye size of male and female alates, including the compound eyes, ommatidia facets, and ocelli were examined. These species can be divided into two distinct groups by nuptial flight behaviour: those that initiate the nuptial flight during the day and those that initiate it at night. The most striking difference between day- vs night-flying alates was in ocellus area, which was almost 50% larger in night-flying species. Night-flying species also had significantly larger ommatidia facets than day-flying species. A scaling relationship was also found between compound eye area, facet diameter, and ocellus area vs overall body size. Detailed observations are also presented on the nuptial flight behaviour of a night- vs day-flying species, A. texana and A. sexdens, respectively. The pattern in A. texana is for a single large and precisely timed nuptial flight before dawn, while flights of A. sexdens last for several hours, beginning at midday. Further observations suggest that the timing of the nuptial flight in A. texana is easily disrupted by light pollution.  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0952-8369 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 115  
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