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Author Davis, S.; Mirick, D.K.; Stevens, R.G. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Night Shift Work, Light at Night, and Risk of Breast Cancer Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2001 Publication JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute Abbreviated Journal JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute  
  Volume 93 Issue 20 Pages 1557-1562  
  Keywords light at night; oncogenesis; melatonin; shiftwork; breast cancer; *Cancer  
  Abstract Exposure to light at night may increase the risk of breast cancer by suppressing the normal nocturnal production of melatonin by the pineal gland, which, in turn, could increase the release of estrogen by the ovaries. This study investigated whether such exposure is associated with an increased risk of breast cancer in women. Methods: Case patients (n = 813), aged 20–74 years, were diagnosed from November 1992 through March 1995; control subjects (n = 793) were identified by random-digit dialing and were frequency matched according to 5-year age groups. An in-person interview was used to gather information on sleep habits and bedroom lighting environment in the 10 years before diagnosis and lifetime occupational history. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated by use of conditional logistic regression, with adjustment for other potential risk factors. Results: Breast cancer risk was increased among subjects who frequently did not sleep during the period of the night when melatonin levels are typically at their highest (OR = 1.14 for each night per week; 95% CI = 1.01 to 1.28). Risk did not increase with interrupted sleep accompanied by turning on a light. There was an indication of increased risk among subjects with the brightest bedrooms. Graveyard shiftwork was associated with increased breast cancer risk (OR = 1.6; 95% CI = 1.0 to 2.5), with a trend of increased risk with increasing years and with more hours per week of graveyard shiftwork (P = .02, Wald chi-squared test). Conclusion: The results of this study provide evidence that indicators of exposure to light at night may be associated with the risk of developing breast cancer.  
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  ISSN 0027-8874 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 164  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2001 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal MNRAS  
  Volume 328 Issue 3 Pages 689-707  
  Keywords scattering; atmospheric effects; light pollution; site testing; DMSP  
  Abstract We present the first World Atlas of the zenith artificial night sky brightness at sea level. Based on radiance-calibrated high-resolution DMSP satellite data and on accurate modelling of light propagation in the atmosphere, it provides a nearly global picture of how mankind is proceeding to envelop itself in a luminous fog. Comparing the Atlas with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) population density data base, we determined the fraction of population who are living under a sky of given brightness. About two-thirds of the World population and 99 per cent of the population in the United States (excluding Alaska and Hawaii) and European Union live in areas where the night sky is above the threshold set for polluted status. Assuming average eye functionality, about one-fifth of the World population, more than two-thirds of the United States population and more than one half of the European Union population have already lost naked eye visibility of the Milky Way. Finally, about one-tenth of the World population, more than 40 per cent of the United States population and one sixth of the European Union population no longer view the heavens with the eye adapted to night vision, because of the sky brightness.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 173  
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Author Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.; Elvidge, C.D. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Naked-eye star visibility and limiting magnitude mapped from DMSP-OLS satellite data Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2001 Publication Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society Abbreviated Journal Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society  
  Volume 323 Issue 1 Pages 34-46  
  Keywords light at night; remote sensing; GTOPO30; DMSP; light pollution; modeling; mapping  
  Abstract We extend the method introduced by Cinzano et al. (2000a) to map the artificial sky brightness in large territories from DMSP satellite data, in order to map the naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes. For these purposes we take into account the altitude of each land area from GTOPO30 world elevation data, the natural sky brightness in the chosen sky direction, based on Garstang modelling, the eye capability with naked eye or a telescope, based on the Schaefer (1990) and Garstang (2000b) approach, and the stellar extinction in the visual photometric band. For near zenith sky directions we also take into account screening by terrain elevation. Maps of naked eye star visibility and telescopic limiting magnitudes are useful to quantify the capability of the population to perceive our Universe, to evaluate the future evolution, to make cross correlations with statistical parameters and to recognize areas where astronomical observations or popularisation can still acceptably be made. We present, as an application, maps of naked eye star visibility and total sky brightness in V band in Europe at the zenith with a resolution of approximately 1 km.  
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  ISSN 0035-8711 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 175  
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Author Sutton, P.; Roberts, D.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Census from Heaven: An estimate of the global human population using night-time satellite imagery Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2001 Publication International Journal of Remote Sensing Abbreviated Journal International Journal of Remote Sensing  
  Volume 22 Issue 16 Pages 3061-3076  
  Keywords light at night; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite  
  Abstract Night-time satellite imagery provided by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is evaluated as a means of estimating the population of all the cities of the world based on their areal extent in the image. A global night-time image product was registered to a dataset of 2000 known city locations with known populations. A relationship between areal extent and city population discovered by Tobler and Nordbeck is identified on a nation by nation basis to estimate the population of the 22 920 urban clusters that exist in the night-time satellite image. The relationship between city population and city areal extent was derived from 1597 city point locations with known population that landed in a 'lit' area of the image. Due to conurbation, these 1597 cities resulted in only 1383 points of analysis for performing regression. When several cities fell into one 'lit' area their populations were summed. The results of this analysis allow for an estimate of the urban population of every nation of the world. By using the known percent of population in urban areas for every nation a total national population was also estimated. The sum of these estimates is a total estimate of the global human population, which in this case was 6.3 billion. This is fairly close to the generally accepted contemporaneous (1997) estimate of the global population which stood at approximately 5.9 billion.  
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  ISSN 0143-1161 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 234  
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Author Schreuder, D.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Pollution-Free Road Lighting Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2001 Publication Transactions of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal Trans. Int. Astron. Union  
  Volume 24 Issue 03 Pages 364  
  Keywords Lighting; Skyglow  
  Abstract The beneficial effects of road lighting are often seen as very important. They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in ‘low’ income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in ‘high’ income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form ‘sky glow’. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow.  
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  ISSN 0251-107X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1726  
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