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Author Sutton, P.C. url  doi
openurl 
  Title A scale-adjusted measure of “Urban sprawl” using nighttime satellite imagery Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2003 Publication Remote Sensing of Environment Abbreviated Journal Remote Sensing of Environment  
  Volume 86 Issue 3 Pages 353-369  
  Keywords Urban sprawl; Sprawl Line; Nighttime satellite imagery; DMSP-OLS; remote sensing; satellite; llight at night  
  Abstract “Urban Sprawl” is a growing concern of citizens, environmental organizations, and governments. Negative impacts often attributed to urban sprawl are traffic congestion, loss of open space, and increased pollutant runoff into natural waterways. Definitions of “Urban Sprawl” range from local patterns of land use and development to aggregate measures of per capita land consumption for given contiguous urban areas (UA). This research creates a measure of per capita land use consumption as an aggregate index for the spatially contiguous urban areas of the conterminous United States with population of 50,000 or greater. Nighttime satellite imagery obtained by the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program's Operational Linescan System (DMSP OLS) is used as a proxy measure of urban extent. The corresponding population of these urban areas is derived from a grid of the block group level data from the 1990 U.S. Census. These numbers are used to develop a regression equation between Ln(Urban Area) and Ln(Urban Population). The ‘scale-adjustment’ mentioned in the title characterizes the “Urban Sprawl” of each of the urban areas by how far above or below they are on the “Sprawl Line” determined by this regression. This “Sprawl Line” allows for a more fair comparison of “Urban Sprawl” between larger and smaller metropolitan areas because a simple measure of per capita land consumption or population density does not account for the natural increase in aggregate population density that occurs as cities grow in population. Cities that have more “Urban Sprawl” by this measure tended to be inland and Midwestern cities such as Minneapolis–St. Paul, Atlanta, Dallas–Ft. Worth, St. Louis, and Kansas City. Surprisingly, west coast cities including Los Angeles had some of the lowest levels of “Urban Sprawl” by this measure. There were many low light levels seen in the nighttime imagery around these major urban areas that were not included in either of the two definitions of urban extent used in this study. These areas may represent a growing commuter-shed of urban workers who do not live in the urban core but nonetheless contribute to many of the impacts typically attributed to “Urban Sprawl”. “Urban Sprawl” is difficult to define precisely partly because public perception of sprawl is likely derived from local land use planning decisions, spatio-demographic change in growing urban areas, and changing values and social mores resulting from differential rates of international migration to the urban areas of the United States. Nonetheless, the aggregate measures derived here are somewhat different than similar previously used measures in that they are ‘scale-adjusted’; also, the spatial patterns of “Urban Sprawl” shown here shed some insight and raise interesting questions about how the dynamics of “Urban Sprawl” are changing.  
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  ISSN 0034-4257 ISBN Medium  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 233  
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Author Dacke, M.; Nilsson, D.-E.; Scholtz, C.H.; Byrne, M.; Warrant, E.J. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Animal behaviour: insect orientation to polarized moonlight Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2003 Publication Nature Abbreviated Journal Nature  
  Volume 424 Issue 6944 Pages 33  
  Keywords Adaptation, Physiological/physiology; Animals; Beetles/*physiology; Feces; Feeding Behavior/physiology; *Light; Locomotion/*physiology; *Moon; Orientation/*physiology; Scarabaeus zambesianus  
  Abstract Moonlight, like sunlight, scatters when it strikes tiny particles in the atmosphere, giving rise to celestial polarization patterns. Here we show that an African dung beetle, Scarabaeus zambesianus, uses the polarization of a moonlit sky to orientate itself so that it can move along a straight line. Many creatures use the Sun's light-polarization pattern to orientate themselves, but S. zambesianus is the first animal known to use the million-times dimmer polarization of moonlight for this purpose.  
  Address Department of Cell and Organism Biology, University of Lund, 223 62 Lund, Sweden. marie.dacke@cob.lu.se  
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  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0028-0836 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12840748 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 242  
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Author Lockley, S.W.; Brainard, G.C.; Czeisler, C.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title High sensitivity of the human circadian melatonin rhythm to resetting by short wavelength light Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2003 Publication The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism Abbreviated Journal J Clin Endocrinol Metab  
  Volume 88 Issue 9 Pages 4502-4505  
  Keywords Human Health; Adult; Area Under Curve; Circadian Rhythm/*radiation effects; Female; Humans; *Light; Male; Melatonin/*metabolism; Pineal Gland/metabolism/radiation effects; Saliva/metabolism; Non-programmatic  
  Abstract The endogenous circadian oscillator in mammals, situated in the suprachiasmatic nuclei, receives environmental photic input from specialized subsets of photoreceptive retinal ganglion cells. The human circadian pacemaker is exquisitely sensitive to ocular light exposure, even in some people who are otherwise totally blind. The magnitude of the resetting response to white light depends on the timing, intensity, duration, number and pattern of exposures. We report here that the circadian resetting response in humans, as measured by the pineal melatonin rhythm, is also wavelength dependent. Exposure to 6.5 h of monochromatic light at 460 nm induces a two-fold greater circadian phase delay than 6.5 h of 555 nm monochromatic light of equal photon density. Similarly, 460 nm monochromatic light causes twice the amount of melatonin suppression compared to 555 nm monochromatic light, and is dependent on the duration of exposure in addition to wavelength. These studies demonstrate that the peak of sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to light is blue-shifted relative to the three-cone visual photopic system, the sensitivity of which peaks at approximately 555 nm. Thus photopic lux, the standard unit of illuminance, is inappropriate when quantifying the photic drive required to reset the human circadian pacemaker.  
  Address Division of Sleep Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA  
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  ISSN 0021-972X ISBN Medium  
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  Notes PMID:12970330 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 778  
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Author Raynham, P.; Saksvikronning, T. url  openurl
  Title White Light and Facial Recognition Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2003 Publication The Lighting Journal Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 68 Issue 1 Pages  
  Keywords Society; Lighting  
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  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ kagoburian @ Serial 1056  
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Author Froy, O.; Gotter, A.L.; Casselman, A.L.; Reppert, S.M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Illuminating the circadian clock in monarch butterfly migration Type Journal Article
  Year (up) 2003 Publication Science (New York, N.Y.) Abbreviated Journal Science  
  Volume 300 Issue 5623 Pages 1303-1305  
  Keywords Animals; *Animal Migration; Biological Clocks/*physiology; Butterflies/genetics/*physiology; Circadian Rhythm/*physiology; Cloning, Molecular; Darkness; Flight, Animal; Light; Nuclear Proteins/genetics/physiology; Period Circadian Proteins; Solar System; Ultraviolet Rays; butterflies; monarch  
  Abstract Migratory monarch butterflies use a time-compensated Sun compass to navigate to their overwintering grounds in Mexico. Here, we report that constant light, which disrupts circadian clock function at both the behavioral and molecular levels in monarchs, also disrupts the time-compensated component of flight navigation. We further show that ultraviolet light is important for flight navigation but is not required for photic entrainment of circadian rhythms. Tracing these distinct light-input pathways into the brain should aid our understanding of the clock-compass mechanisms necessary for successful migration.  
  Address Department of Neurobiology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, LRB-728, 364 Plantation Street, Worcester, MA 01605, USA  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0036-8075 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:12764200 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1072  
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