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Author Bullough, J.D.; Skinner, N.P.
Title Real-World Demonstrations of Novel Pedestrian Crosswalk Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume 2661 Issue Pages 62-68
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Planning
Abstract Outdoor urban pedestrian lighting serves multiple purposes and should do so in the most efficient and economic manner. An important purpose of outdoor urban pedestrian lighting is to support the safety of pedestrians, particularly those who interact with adjacent vehicle traffic, while enhancing pedestrians’ perceptions of personal safety and security. A review of published literature, as well as the demonstration activities summarized, indicates the potential for bollard-level crosswalk lighting to enhance pedestrian visibility and to improve safety at crosswalks, particularly at locations where the presence of a crosswalk might not be expected by approaching drivers. Such locations include midblock crossings, roundabouts, and locations near schools and other public venues that might experience high levels of pedestrian traffic at sporadic or unexpected times.
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Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1723
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Author Bullough, J.D.
Title Human Factors Impacts of Light-Emitting Diode Airfield Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board
Volume 2626 Issue Pages 51-57
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) differ from incandescent light sources in several ways that are relevant to energy and maintenance requirements of airfield lighting systems. They have higher luminous efficacy and, when designed properly, have longer useful operating lives; both factors make LEDs attractive candidates for airfield lighting. The photometric, colorimetric, and temporal characteristics of LEDs also differ from those of incandescent light sources, and these can have important implications for the appearance of runway and taxiway lighting systems. The present paper reviews publications summarizing experimental and analytical investigations designed to assess these implications with respect to the following human factors impacts: color identification, brightness and glare, visibility in fog and haze, response to onset of flashing lights, and stroboscopic effects such as the phantom array. Overall, this review of experimental evidence suggests that, in addition to their reduced energy use and maintenance requirements, LED airfield lighting can be advantageous in comparison with incandescent lighting systems used to delineate airport runways and taxiways.
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Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1758
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Author Bassani, M.; Mutani, G.
Title Effects of Environmental Lighting Conditions on Operating Speeds on Urban Arterials Type Journal Article
Year 2012 Publication Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board Abbreviated Journal (down) Transportation Research Record
Volume 2298 Issue 1 Pages 78-87
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety
Abstract Driver behavior is influenced by environmental lighting conditions on roads; in the literature, many studies report a reduced night–day accident ratio following improvements to lighting on different types of roads, with the results classified by severity and type of accident. Few studies, however, report the influence of lighting conditions on driver speed. This study investigates the principal factors that influence driver speed on arterial roads in Turin, Italy. The aim of this study was to analyze driver speed under different daylight and nighttime lighting conditions. Six arterial roads were selected for observation and the measurement of speeds and illuminance on the pavement surface. The results showed that illuminance, in addition to factors such as lane position, lane width, and the relevant speed limit, should be considered a variable that can influence driver speed. The study used a regression equation to predict operating speeds (V85) on urban arterials; the corresponding sensitivity analysis has made it possible to quantify the effects of the aforementioned variables on operating speed under different environmental lighting conditions.
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Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0361-1981 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 2872
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Author Schreuder, D.A.
Title Pollution-Free Road Lighting Type Journal Article
Year 2001 Publication Transactions of the International Astronomical Union Abbreviated Journal (down) Trans. Int. Astron. Union
Volume 24 Issue 03 Pages 364
Keywords Lighting; Skyglow
Abstract The beneficial effects of road lighting are often seen as very important. They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in ‘low’ income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in ‘high’ income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form ‘sky glow’. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow.
Address
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 0251-107X ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1726
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Author Wanvik, P.O.
Title Effects of road lighting on motorways Type Journal Article
Year 2009 Publication Traffic Injury Prevention Abbreviated Journal (down) Traffic Inj Prev
Volume 10 Issue 3 Pages 279-289
Keywords Lighting; Public Safety; Security
Abstract OBJECTIVES: The study has three objectives. The first is to investigate how the effect of road lighting on motorway accidents varies with different weather and road surface conditions. The second is to evaluate the future benefit of road lighting as a safety measure on motorways. The third is to evaluate the need for further research in the field of motorway lighting. METHOD: This article presents a cross-sectional study of the effects of road lighting on motorways mainly in The Netherlands. The main source of data is a Dutch database of accidents covering the period 1987-2006, but British and Swedish data are also used. RESULTS: The effect of road lighting on motorways is found to be greater in The Netherlands than in Great Britain or Sweden. Reasons for this are not known. Effects are found to vary according to background characteristics and are lesser during precipitation than during fine weather and on wet road surfaces than on dry surfaces. No effect of road lighting is found during fog. Collision with light poles constitutes a large number of accidents on lit motorways and reduces the safety effect of road lighting. CONCLUSIONS: The effect of road lighting on injury accidents during darkness is found to be very high (-49%) on Dutch motorways. However, the effect seems to vary between countries. Collisions with light poles reduce the effect of road lighting. Road lighting will probably be an effective safety measures on motorways for many years. In the long term, however, the benefit of road lighting will probably be reduced along with the implementation of new vehicle and road technology. Modern technology permits a continuous adaptation of luminance levels to optimize the effect of road lighting on safety while at the same time minimizing energy consumption. However, more detailed knowledge concerning the effects of road lighting at different lighting levels is needed in order to use this technology effectively. Alternative or additional measures like LED guide lights and light road surfaces also need to be evaluated.
Address Norwegian Public Roads Administration, Region South, Serviceboks 723, Arendal, Norway. per.wanvik@vegvesen.no
Corporate Author Thesis
Publisher Place of Publication Editor
Language English Summary Language Original Title
Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title
Series Volume Series Issue Edition
ISSN 1538-9588 ISBN Medium
Area Expedition Conference
Notes PMID:19452370 Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1788
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