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Author Schroer, S.; Hölker, F.
Title Light Pollution Reduction Type Book Chapter
Year 2014 Publication Handbook of Advanced Lighting Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages
Keywords ligting technology; awareness; skyglow, lighting design
Abstract Artificial light at night is an irreplaceable technology for our society and its activities at nighttime. But this indispensable tool has detrimental side effects, which have only come to light in the past 10–20 years. This chapter reviews ways to implement technology in order to lower the impact of artificial light at night on nature and humans. Further, it provides guidelines for environmental protection and scientific approaches to reduce the increase in light pollution and discusses the urgent need for further research. Measures to prevent obtrusive light and unintentional trespass into homes and natural habitats are

mostly simple solutions like shielding luminaires and predominantly require awareness. Shades are another effective tool to reduce trespass from interior lights. Especially in greenhouses, the use of shades significantly reduces the contribution to skyglow. Artificial light should be switched off whenever it is not needed. Smart, flexible lighting systems can help to use artificial light with precision. The choice of the appropriate illumination has to be balanced by the needs for optimal visibility, human well-being, environmental conservation and protection of the night sky. For visibility, conditions comparable to bright moonlit nights (0.3 lx) are sufficient. Low-level streetlights that produce only 1–3 lx at the surface meet the requirement of facial cognition. Although this light level might be too low for road safety, a consideration of maximum illumination levels in street lighting is recommended. The spectral power distribution of illuminants can impact several environmental parameters. For example, illuminants emitting short wavelengths can sup- press melatonin in higher vertebrates (including humans), are attracting many insect species, and contribute in skyglow above average. Recent findings in different measures for energy efficiency of illuminants at scotopic or mesopic vision conditions compared to photopic conditions indicate that the assessment of lighting products needs fundamental revision. Further research is crucially needed to create refuges for light-sensitive species at night, to measure the impact of artificial light on nature, and also to monitor the improvements of light pollution-reducing measures. Decrees in various regions have helped to lower the impact of artificial light at night significantly. Measures to reduce the impact of artificial light at night need to be carefully balanced with the surrounding environment. Thoughtful guidelines are crucial to reducing the rapid increase in sky brightness worldwide. These guidelines need to be made accessible for decision makers especially in areas which require new light installations.
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Publisher Springer International Publishing Place of Publication Editor Karlicek, Robert Sun, Ching-Chern Zissis, Georgis Ma, Ruiqing
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1569
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Author Hölker, Andreas; Doulos, Lambros; Schroer, Sibylle; Topalis, Frangiskos
Title Sustainable outdoor lighting for reducing energy and light waste Type Conference Article
Year 2016 Publication 9th International Conference Improving Energy Efficiency in Commercial Buildings and Smart Communities Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume Issue Pages 202-213
Keywords lighting design; lighting technology; light pollution
Abstract The lack of lighting planning for internal and external illumination of buildings contributes to wasting energy and to the issue of light pollution. This will be demonstrated with research from the ground and by analysis of images, taken with detectors on satellites, the International Space Station or planes. Besides large area floodlighting from airports or sports facilities, facade illumination is the most important contributor. The effects of malpractice versus sustainable lighting planning solutions will be demonstrated with some examples in cities like Bonn, Strasbourg, Athens and Thessaloniki. Further examples in the countryside will demonstrate lighting practice in the German star park Biosphere Reserve Rhön. Facade lighting planning, considering optimal alignment, the intensity and the colour quality of the illumination, will contribute to reducing light pollution and thus waste of energy and will increase human comfort at the same time.

Experience shows that unilateral promoting energy efficiency will finally result in more extended use of energy, which is known as rebound effect. In addition the small size and long lifetime of the modern solid state lighting will result in an increased use even in remote places thereby emitting more artificial light into the natural night. This does not only affect the energy use, but also the biological rhythms of animals and human beings.

More interdisciplinary criteria for a sustainable lighting with reduced light pollution will be discussed based on the observations including data provided by the EU-network “Loss of the Night”-Network (EU-COST Action ES1204 LoNNe).
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Publisher JRC Confernce and workshop reports Place of Publication Editor
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Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 1573
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Author Herie Park, Hyensou Pak, Chan-Su Lee
Title Prospect of Automotive Lighting Systems of Self-Driving Vehicles Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 31 Issue 8 Pages 1-8
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Light sources and lighting technology adapted to vehicles have been developed to assist drivers’ safety and to perceive other vehicles and pedestrians during the nighttime. As autonomous vehicles driven by data obtained from sensors are shown up, the role of the automotive lighting system should be reconsidered for the future traffic environment. This paper presents the future prospects of automotive lighting systems adapted to self-driving vehicles. It describes a current state of automotive lighting systems, and roles of the lighting systems suitable for self-driving vehicles. It also deals with the related topics of automotive lightings such as energy management, light pollution, security, and hybrid lighting systems for the road that combine with computer-and human-drivers during a transition period.
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Notes Approved no
Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1742
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Author Jin-Joo Lee, Seong-Sik Yoo, Ho-Seok Kang, Dong-Hee Kim, Jin-Ho Nam, Hyun-Ji Kim, Hoon Kim
Title A Research on Visual Performance at Different Ages Depending on Color Temperature of Headlights Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 31 Issue 8 Pages 40-48
Keywords Lighting
Abstract Under night-time driving conditions, both cones and rods in eye’s retina simultaneously act to influence mesopic vision in two areas: central and peripheral visions. However, as people age, the amount of light received as well as the color temperature perceived by the human eyes also change. This research, through simulations and scaled down experiments with various headlight color temperatures and two levels of fixed brightness, deals with differences in ability to detect and identify obstacles by the subjects in their 20’s and 50’s.

According to the results obtained from the experiments on peripheral vision, subjects in their 20’s detected the obstacles more quickly at the combined color temperature of 3,000K+4,500K than at the single color temperature of 4,500K, and likewise at 3,000K+5,500K than at 5,500K; this tendency was significantly more noticeable for the subjects in their 50’s. As for the central vision, the results showed that there were no significant differences due to color temperature between the subjects in their 20’s and those in their 50’s. Moreover, the landolt ring experiment conducted under low luminance yielded higher percentage of correct answers at combined color temperatures.
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1743
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Author John D. Bullough
Title Opinion: Will road lighting wither? Type Journal Article
Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal (up)
Volume 49 Issue Pages 672
Keywords Commentary; Lighting
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Call Number LoNNe @ kyba @ Serial 1761
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