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Author Figueiro, M.G.; Nagare, R.; Price, L.L.A. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Non-visual effects of light: How to use light to promote circadian entrainment and elicit alertness Type Journal Article
  Year 2017 Publication Lighting Research & Technology Abbreviated Journal  
  Volume 50 Issue 1 Pages 38-62  
  Keywords Human Health; Lighting  
  Abstract (up) In addition to stimulating the visual system, light incident on the retina stimulates other biological functions, also referred to as non-visual responses. Among the most notable biological functions are human circadian rhythms, which are bodily rhythms that, in constant darkness, oscillate with a period close to, but typically slightly longer than 24 hours. Twenty-four-hour light–dark patterns incident on the retina are the major synchroniser of circadian rhythms to the local time on Earth. Entrainment of circadian rhythms has been implicated in health and well-being. Light can also elicit an acute alerting effect on people, similar to a ‘cup of coffee.’ This review summarises the literature on how light affects entrainment and alertness and how it can be used to achieve these aims.  
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  Call Number GFZ @ kyba @ Serial 3133  
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Author Verovnik, R.; Fiser, Z.; Zaksek, V. url  doi
openurl 
  Title How to reduce the impact of artificial lighting on moths: a case study on cultural heritage sites in Slovenia Type Journal Article
  Year 2015 Publication Journal for Nature Conservation Abbreviated Journal J. for Nature Conservation  
  Volume 28 Issue Pages 105–111  
  Keywords Animals; Lighting; Ecology; ecological light pollution; moth diversity; flight-to-light; artificial illumination; Lepidoptera; Slovenis; Europe  
  Abstract (up) In an ever more artificially illuminated world, common moth behaviour, flight-to-light, causes declines in their abundance and diversity that can have severe impacts on ecosystems. To test if it is possible to reduce the number of moths attracted to artificially illuminated objects, the original lighting of 15 cultural heritage buildings in Slovenia was substituted with blue or yellow lighting. These three illumination types differed in the amount of luminance, percentage of UV and short-wavelength light which are known to affect flight-to-light of moths. During our three-year field study approximately 20% of all known moth species in Slovenia were recorded. The blue and yellow illumination type attracted up to six times less specimens and up to four times less species compared to the original illumination type. This was true for all detected moths as well as within separate moth groups. This gives our study a high conservation value: usage of alternative, environmentally more acceptable illumination can greatly reduce the number of moths attracted to artificially illuminated objects.  
  Address University of Ljubljana, Biotechnical faculty, Department of Biology, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia; valerija.zaksek(at)bf.uni-lj.si  
  Corporate Author Thesis  
  Publisher Elsevier Place of Publication Editor  
  Language English Summary Language English Original Title  
  Series Editor Series Title Abbreviated Series Title  
  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 1617-1381 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 1268  
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Author Solano Lamphar, H.A.; Kocifaj, M. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Light pollution in ultraviolet and visible spectrum: effect on different visual perceptions Type Journal Article
  Year 2013 Publication PloS one Abbreviated Journal PLoS One  
  Volume 8 Issue 2 Pages e56563  
  Keywords Lighting; Animals; *Environmental Pollution; Humans; Insects; Light; Lighting/*adverse effects; Models, Theoretical; *Visual Perception  
  Abstract (up) In general terms, lighting research has been focused in the development of artificial light with the purpose of saving energy and having more durable lamps. However, the consequences that artificial night lighting could bring to the human being and living organisms have become an important issue recently. Light pollution represents a significant problem to both the environment and human health causing a disruption of biological rhythms related not only to the visible spectrum, but also to other parts of the electromagnetic spectrum. Since the lamps emit across a wide range of the electromagnetic spectrum, all photobiological species may be exposed to another type of light pollution. By comparing five different lamps, the present study attempts to evaluate UV radiative fluxes relative to what humans and two species of insects perceive as sky glow level. We have analyzed three atmospheric situations: clear sky, overcast sky and evolving precipitable water content. One important finding suggests that when a constant illuminance of urban spaces has to be guaranteed the sky glow from the low pressure sodium lamps has the most significant effect to the visual perception of the insects tested. But having the fixed number of luminaires the situation changes and the low pressure sodium lamp would be the best choice for all three species. The sky glow effects can be interpreted correctly only if the lamp types and the required amount of scotopic luxes at the ground are taken into account simultaneously. If these two factors are combined properly, then the ecological consequences of sky glow can be partly reduced. The results of this research may be equally useful for lighting engineers, architects, biologists and researchers who are studying the effects of sky glow on humans and biodiversity.  
  Address ICA, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovak Republic. lamphar@gmail.com  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  ISSN 1932-6203 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:23441205; PMCID:PMC3575508 Approved no  
  Call Number LoNNe @ schroer @ Serial 578  
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Author Evans, J.A.; Elliott, J.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Circadian effects of light no brighter than moonlight Type Journal Article
  Year 2007 Publication Journal of Biological Rhythms Abbreviated Journal J Biol Rhythms  
  Volume 22 Issue 4 Pages 356-367  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology/*radiation effects; *Circadian Rhythm; Cricetinae; Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation; Lighting/*methods; Male; Mesocricetus; Motor Activity; Oscillometry; Photic Stimulation/methods; *Photoperiod; Physical Conditioning, Animal; Time Factors  
  Abstract (up) In mammals, light entrains endogenous circadian pacemakers by inducing daily phase shifts via a photoreceptor mechanism recently discovered in retinal ganglion cells. Light that is comparable in intensity to moonlight is generally ineffective at inducing phase shifts or suppressing melatonin secretion, which has prompted the view that circadian photic sensitivity has been titrated so that the central pacemaker is unaffected by natural nighttime illumination. However, the authors have shown in several different entrainment paradigms that completely dark nights are not functionally equivalent to dimly lit nights, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for the circadian visual system. The present studies extend these findings. Dim illumination is shown here to be neither a strong zeitgeber, consistent with published fluence response curves, nor a potentiator of other zeitgebers. Nevertheless, dim light markedly alters the behavior of the free-running circadian pacemaker. Syrian hamsters were released from entrained conditions into constant darkness or dim narrowband green illumination (~0.01 lx, 1.3 x 10(-9) W/cm(2), peak lambda = 560 nm). Relative to complete darkness, constant dim light lengthened the period by ~0.3 h and altered the waveform of circadian rhythmicity. Among animals transferred from long day lengths (14 L:10 D) into constant conditions, dim illumination increased the duration of the active phase (alpha) by ~3 h relative to complete darkness. Short day entrainment (8 L:16 D) produced initially long alpha that increased further under constant dim light but decreased under complete darkness. In contrast, dim light pulses 2 h or longer produced effects on circadian phase and melatonin secretion that were small in magnitude. Furthermore, the amplitude of phase resetting to bright light and nonphotic stimuli was similar against dimly lit and dark backgrounds, indicating that the former does not directly amplify circadian inputs. Dim illumination markedly alters circadian waveform through effects on alpha, suggesting that dim light influences the coupling between oscillators theorized to program the beginning and end of subjective night. Physiological mechanisms responsible for conveying dim light stimuli to the pacemaker and implications for chronotherapeutics warrant further study.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093, usa. jaevans@ucsd.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0748-7304 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:17660452 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 31  
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Author Evans, J.A.; Carter, S.N.; Freeman, D.A.; Gorman, M.R. url  doi
openurl 
  Title Dim nighttime illumination alters photoperiodic responses of hamsters through the intergeniculate leaflet and other photic pathways Type Journal Article
  Year 2012 Publication Neuroscience Abbreviated Journal Neuroscience  
  Volume 202 Issue Pages 300-308  
  Keywords Animals; Biological Clocks/physiology; Circadian Rhythm/physiology; Cricetinae; Darkness; Data Interpretation, Statistical; Geniculate Bodies/*physiology; *Lighting; Male; Motor Activity/physiology; Phodopus; *Photoperiod; Visual Pathways/*physiology  
  Abstract (up) In mammals, light entrains the central pacemaker within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) through both a direct neuronal projection from the retina and an indirect projection from the intergeniculate leaflet (IGL) of the thalamus. Although light comparable in intensity to moonlight is minimally effective at resetting the phase of the circadian clock, dimly lit and completely dark nights are nevertheless perceived differentially by the circadian system, even when nighttime illumination is below putative thresholds for phase resetting. Under a variety of experimental paradigms, dim nighttime illumination exerts effects that may be characterized as enhancing the plasticity of circadian entrainment. For example, relative to completely dark nights, dimly lit nights accelerate development of photoperiodic responses of Siberian hamsters transferred from summer to winter day lengths. Here we assess the neural pathways underlying this response by testing whether IGL lesions eliminate the effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths. Consistent with previous work, dimly lit nights facilitated the expansion of activity duration under short day lengths. Ablation of the IGL, moreover, did not influence photoperiodic responses in animals held under completely dark nights. However, among animals that were provided dimly lit nights, IGL lesions prevented the short-day typical expansion of activity duration as well as the seasonally appropriate gonadal regression and reduction in body weight. Thus, the present data indicate that the IGL plays a central role in mediating the facilitative effects of dim nighttime illumination under short day lengths, but in the absence of the IGL, dim light at night influences photoperiodic responses through residual photic pathways.  
  Address Department of Psychology, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA. jevans@msm.edu  
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  Language English Summary Language Original Title  
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  Series Volume Series Issue Edition  
  ISSN 0306-4522 ISBN Medium  
  Area Expedition Conference  
  Notes PMID:22155265; PMCID:PMC3578228 Approved no  
  Call Number IDA @ john @ Serial 87  
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